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Was Your Colonial Forebear Jewish?

Monday, April 21, 2014


One of the remarkable suggestions in our book Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America (McFarland 2012) was that both the First Families of Virginia and Pilgrim Mothers and Fathers of Massachusetts included many colonists of Jewish ancestry (usually Sephardic). There were, in fact, Jews, ex-Jews and crypto-Jews (and Muslims and crypto-Muslims) hidden in the ship passenger lists and early tax rolls of all thirteen colonies, with Georgia (chapter 9) proposed to be the "most Jewish." 

We give here the index from that book, the second volume in a series that began with When Scotland Was Jewish (2007) and concludes next month with the publication of The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales:  A Genetic and Genealogical History. 

Are any of your colonial ancestors listed? It is likely they bore Jewish ancestry, even if they did not practice Judaism and presented themselves as Christian. In future blogs, we will reproduce other colonist roisters from the appendices of the book, which cover Virginia to Georgia. Below is the master index to page numbers, which does not pick up every single name but does note any name discussed or mentioned in the body of the text. 

Abbadie  150

Abbey  68

Abdelloe  178

Abel/Abell 66, 116

Abennomen  165

Abercorn  165

Abercromby  147

Aberdaun  165

Aberdeen  51, 58, 170, 182

Aboab  39

Abraham/Abrahams  117-18, 132, 134

Abrahamsen  91

academies  186

Acker/Ackerman  112

Acker/Acre  114, 116

Acosta  103

Ada  177

Adair  36, 136-38, 146, 160

Adams/Addams   43, 66, 67, 103, 111, 124, 185

Adar  175

Adel/Adela  177

Adela  177

Adelaide  177

Adeline  155, 177

Aden  171

Adjai  167

Adkins  36, 137

Adye  167

Aegler  118

Agar  66

Aguilar  35

Ahiman Rezon, The  185

Aithcock  51

Alabama  161, 188

Alamza  154

Albany  83, 92, 96-98

Albigensians  114, 181

Albright  117, 121

Alcade  178

Aleef/Alif  124

Alen, van  100

Alexander  36, 43, 80, 90, 98, 100, 111, 187

Alfari/Alferry  117

Algeier  116

Algeria  116, 164

Alida  100

aliyah  79

Alkabetz, Shlomo Halevi  68

Allee/Ali  124

Alleman  118

Allen  43, 116, 147

Almora  30

Alpheus  185

Alsace-Lorraine  114, 118, 151, 160, 166

Amadas, Philip  14, 23,  47

Amaker  146

Amatis  163

Ames  67, 111, 114

Amesbury, Mass.  78, 81

Amir  70, 185

Amish  114, 119

Amma  114

Amman  114, 119

Ammon  see  Hammon

Amory  146

Amos  67

Amsterdam  65, 83-91, 141

Anatta  117

Anderson  162

Andover, Mass.  70

Andrews/Andrus  40, 43, 53

Andronicus  67

Ane, de  185

Angelo  134

Anglo-Saxon  60, 99

Angola Neck  124

Annon  132

Ansegisele  177

Anthon/Anthony  13, 55, 91

Antill  99

Antwerp  85

Apollonius of Tyana  179

Apunkshunnubbee  161

Aquila  125, 128

Aquitaine  141

Arabia  117

Arabic  154

Araminta  125

Aras  112

Arawak Indians  31

Arbell, Mordecai  29, 40-41, 85, 169

Arbo  117

Arcajah  154

Archelaus  171

Archer, Gabriel  51

Aree/Arey  124

Aretas  77

Argall, Samuel  52

Armor  111

Arnau  43

Arnaut  91

Arnett  186

Arnold  100; Benedict  116, 184

Arnulf of Herstal  177

Arrobas  169

Arthur  167, 178

Arundel   23, 47

Asahal  171

Ascham, Roger  21

Ascough  11

Asenith/Seneth  155

Ash/Ashe  76, 116, 186

Ashcom  132

Ashfield  99

Ashler  118

Ashley  129

Ashley-Cooper, Anthony  145, 162

Ashmole, Elias  21, 173-75, 177-79, 181, 185, 186

Ashmolean Museum  173

Ashmore  167

Ashton  116

Asians  28, 33

Askew  111

Astor:  103; John Jacob 56

Athelstone  175

Athens  117

Athias  40

Atkin  58

Attakullakulla  148, 163

Attia  174

Aubry  47

Augusta, Ga.  162, 165, 169-70

Augustein  118

Austin  36, 77, 126, 148

Austria  119

Auvergne  140

Avarilla  171

Averroism  14

Avicenna  181

Avignon  141

Avila  30, 147

Ayllon, de  144

Aymand  147

Aynon  175

Ayr  142

Ayrault  142

Ayres  126

Azariah  155

Azikiwe, Nnamdi  5

Azores  15, 28-29

Aztec Indians 33-34

Baasz  112

Babylon  24

Babylonian  140

Baca  34

Bacchus  175, 177

Backhouse  177

Backshell  167

Bacon:  181, Francis  179-180

Bacquencourt, de  151

Badenooon  165

Baeck  128

Baecksel  167

Bagge  117

Baggett  36

Bagley  111

Bagnall  68

Bagoh  178

Bagot  178

Bagsell  54

Bailleux, de  150

Bailly  150

Bain  170

Baldwin/Baudoin  116

Ball  43, 57, 186

Ballard  66

Baltimore  123, 136-37

Bamberg  166

banks 74

Banos  30

Baptists  68, 166

Barak  117; see also Baruch

Baram  53

Barbados  41, 55, 86, 95-96, 99, 132, 145

Barbalha  142

Barbauld  142; see also Barbo

Barbeaux  167

Barberie  97

Barbero, Alessandro  177

Barbo  167

Barbot  143

Barentsen  91

Barfoot  51

Barksdale  167

Barlow, Arthur  14, 16, 47

Barnard  167

Barne/Barney  19, 66, 125, 128

Barnes  137, 179

Barnett  42, 43, 100

Baron/Barron  118

Barr  114, 118

Barratt  185

Barre  150

Barrett 18, 43, 184

Barriers  137

Barrow  68

Barruck  127, 150

Barry  111

Barsham  67

Bartholomaeie  112

Barton  143

Baruch/ Baroch  68, 109, 114, 116, 167

Basanier, Martin  46

Basque  178

Bass/Basse  53, 67, 185

Bassett  68, 70

Bat  112

Batista  30

Batt  110

Batz  150

Bavaria  166

Bayer, Henry G.  89

Bayley  150

Bayly/Bailey  111

Bayonne  141

Bazill/Basil  134, 143

Bea/Bee  91, 148

Beale  148

Beamer/Beamor  170

Bean  170

Beares/Bears  112

Beauchamp  63, 68, 126

Beaudel  161

Bechtelll  117

Beck  128

Bedat, du  152

Beekman  97-98, 103

Beford  162

Begga  177

Beit Shean  185

Belcastel  150

Belcher  181

Belgians  89

Belitha  162

Bell  51, 78, 138

Bella/Bellah  115

Bellew  23

Bellington  108

Belmonte/Bellomont  95, 103

Ben Israel, Menasseh  9, 29, 39, 47, 84

Benamour  170

Benarus, Luna  29

Bendal  67

Bender  118

Benejah  171

Benetez  28

Benham  67

Benison  167

Benitez  31

Benjamin  97, 132, 178

Bennett  53, 184

Benoni  132

Bensalem  181

Bensaudes  29

Bentzel  114

Benzet  117

Benzien  117

Benzion  117

Berbers  26-27, 39, 117, 128, 153, 167

Berenson  91

Beriah  67

Berkeley  53

Berkshire County, Pa.  116

Bermejo, Juan Rodriguez  8

Bernal  31

Bernard  143

Bernard/Bernhard  41, 167

Berry  80

Bertonneau  143

Besly  143

Bessor  179

Beth Elohim Congregation  157

Bethany  170

Bethel  116

Bethencourt, Juan de  27

Bethia  78

Bethlehem  174

Bethulia  111

Betton  185

Beverhoudt, van  168

Beverley, Robert  56

Beverly, Mass.  70

Bevis Marks  164, 188

Bey  89

Bicker  86

Bidardike  112

Biddle  103

Biggs  53

Bilhah  184

Billington  106

Birchum/Berghoum  155

Bird/Byrd  55-57, 85, 95, 99, 104

Birmingham  125

Bises/Beziz  178

Black  85

Black Dutch  161

Black Fox  120, 137, 187

Black Irish  161

Blackall  96

Blackheaded Cooper, chief  188

Blackwell  43

Blaeu, Joan  84

Blair  184

Blakiston  134

Blanchan  89

Blanchard  185

Bland  77

Blandford-Bute Lodge  185

Blaquire  150

Blatser  100

Bless  114

Blessing  70

Blevins  36, 137, 171

Bloom  94

Bloomart  86

Bluett  53

Blum  115

Boas  179, 184

Bodell  161

Bogomils  114

Bohun, Lawrence, Dr.  52

Boileau  150

Bois, du  88

Boleyn   20

Bolivar  125

Bomonzore  178

Bon  125

Bond  186; see also Bondi

Bondi/Biondi  162

Bondurant  170

Boniten  47

Bonneau  146

Bonnell  150

Bonney  79

Bono  125

Book of Creation, The  179

Boone  6, 36, 40, 51, 52, 56, 120, 125, 136, 137, 148, 161, 171-72, 186

Booth  132

Boozer  146

Bordeaux  141, 146, 150

Borden  99

Borges  47, 167

Borough/Boroughs  51, 150

Bose, du  146

Bosomworth  167

Boston  82

Boude  186

Boudinot  91, 184

Bouherar  150

Boules  117

Bouquett  91

Bourquin  167

Boutellier  167

Bowdle  161-62, 167

Bowen  98, 187

Bower  128

Bowling  162, 167

Bowyer  174-74

Brabant  167

Bradby  51

Bradford, William  62-64, 77, 86

Bradstreet  70

Brandenburg  178

Brandner  166

Brandon  41, 43, 164

Brashear  137

Brasier  91

Brassey  109

Bratton  146

Braund, Kathryn Holland  169

Braveboy  51

Brazil  86, 91, 103, 144, 154

Bremen  42

Bremige  47

Brenneiss  118

Brereton  130

Bresteede  90

Brewer  174

Brewington  50

Brewster  65-66

Brezca  125

Bright  67

Brimage  186

Brisbee  78

Briscoe  125-26

Bristol  11, 53-54, 105-8

Brocas  150

Brock/Brocke  54

Brook/Brooke  57, 109

Broom  184

Broucard  89

Broussee  54

Brouwer  89

Browewich  47

Brown, Rae & Company  169

Brown/Browne  36, 41, 43, 66, 67, 72, 132, 144, 171, 187

Bruce  43, 54

Brugh, van  98

Brun, Le  143

Brusie  100

Bryan/Bryant  43, 136, 138

Buatt  114

Bubar/Buber  112

Buchanan  147

Buckman  112

Bucks County, Pa.  117-18

Budaeus  186

Budocushyde  18

Buen/Bueno  91, 125

Buffalo Creek, N.C.  185

Buffam  68

Bulgar  67

Bull  148

Bulloch/Bullock  102, 147

Bunch  36

Bundy  162

Bunning  170

Buntin  112

Burgeois, de  151

Burges/Burgess  151, 167

Burke  120, 138

Burnett  51, 137

Burns, Rinnah Bonnie  119

Burr  67

Burton  162

Bus, de  114

Bush  43

Buss, Wanda Looney  187

Bute  185

Butler  167, 178

Buych  83

Buys  89

Byrd, William  55-56, 58

Bysshe  178

cabala  15, 20, 114, 174-76, 179, 184, 185

Cabarrus  186

Cabot  80

Cadiz  112, 117

Cadwalader  112, 186

Caen  95, 153

Caillemotte, La  151

Calais  88-89

Calderon  31

Caldwell  36, 146, 167, 170

Calef  67

Calhoun  146

Callahan  43

Calvert  123

Calvinists  141

Calwell  see  Caldwell

Cambon  151

Cambridge University  20-21, 95

Cammell  134

Campanal  92

Campbell  36, 43, 120, 148, 184

Camuse/Camus  164, 167

Canaan  113

Canaan  185

Canada  42, 85

Canada/Candia/Candiani/Candi  124

Canary Islands  18, 27-28, 47

Candelaria  31

Candy  168

Canide  117

Cannon  185

Canoday  see Canada

Canter/Cantor  113, 117, 120

Cantrell  142

Cape Girardeau  160

Capelle/Cappell  114, 184

Capen  67

Cappe  41, 53

Carballo  30

Card  53

Cardozo  84

Carew   13

Carey/Cary  112, 124

Caribbean  40-42, 66, 68-70, 85-87, 94, 146, 167-69

Carmuk  117

Carnall  124

Carnegie  103

Carolinas  36, 171; see also North Carolina; South Carolina

Carow  102

Carpenter/Carpentier  162

Carre  142, 151

Carrier  72

Carroll  184

Carter  36, 43, 50, 57

Carteret  106

Cartier  43

Carvajal  34, 47

Casaubon  179

Caselick  127

Casier  88-89

Cassandra  125, 171

Cassas, Alberto de las  27

Cassel  43, 127

Casson  127

Castelin, John  19

Castile, Spain  117

Castill  117

Catalonia  140

Catawba Indians  55

Cathars  114, 179, 181

Caton  67, 114

Cats  90

Caudill  36

Causey  53

Cavendish, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Cecil, William (1st Baron Burghley)  19, 21

Cenus Rosa  155

Cervantes  33

Chaffin  36, 136

Chaigneau  151

Chaim  117; see also Haim/Haym

Chamberlaine  151

Champagne  151

Champernoun   12, 18

Chaplin  53

Chapman  53, 112, 117, 185

Charlemagne  76, 176-77

Charles  II  106, 181

Charles Martel  175-77

Charlestown  187

Charpeles  116

Chartier, Martin   120

Chase  103

Chauny, Picardy  167

Chavez  34

Chavez, Angelico  34

Chavis  51

Cheever  67

Cheke, John  21, 22

Chelsea  72-73

Chenevix  151

Cherokee Indians  36, 55, 120, 137-38, 147-48, 167, 170, 187-88

Cherouse  168

Cherry  185

Chesebrough  67

Cheshire  129-30

Cheson  43

Chessed  132

Chester County, Pa.  116-17

Chew  135

Chickamauga  188

Chickasaw Indians  160-61, 169

Childe, Robert  178

China  56, 83, 85, 163

Chloe  171

Choctaw Indians  160-61

Chodowiesky, Johann  179

Choice of Emblems  179

Christopher  137

Christy  36

Chupa  116

Churton, Tobias  173, 178

Ciboney Indians  29

circumcision  178

citrus  28, 153

Clapp  68

Clark/Clarke   13, 43, 47, 69, 124, 167, 184, 187

Clarkson  98

Claypoole  108

Clewis  50

Cline  119

Cloeraly  50

Clopper  90

Cloyes  70

Clymer  74

Cobb  50

Coburg  166

Cock/Cocke  73, 117

Coen  85, 100

Coerten  89

Coeymans  100

Coffee  137, 167

Cogu  89

Cohaire  Indians  50

Cohan, George M.  43

Cohen  43, 57, 73, 85, 89, 100, 113, 118, 147, 162, 164, 170

Colden  99

Coligny  144

Colina  142

Collier  174

Collins   18, 36, 142, 167

Collop  51

Collot  151

Cologne  84

Colon  31; see also Columbus, Christopher

Columbus, Christopher  7-8, 27, 29, 31, 41

Columbus, Ga.  164

Comegys  127

Compagnie des Indes  159-60

Company for the Mines Royal  12

Comyns  148

Conant  68

Conellier, de la  148

Coney  67

Connecticut  184

Conraets  86

Constable  57

Constanta  66

Constitution  97, 185

Conversos  7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 34, 40, 43, 46, 49, 124, 141, 144

Cook/Cooke  128; Lewis 184

Cooper 13, 36, 43, 50, 90, 100, 103, 120, 125-26, 129, 137-38, 147-48, 161-62, 167, 171, 185-86

Copenhagen  119

Copland/Copeland  68, 183

Copper see Cooper

Coppyn  54

coral trade  83

Coram  162

Corbett  124

Cordes  146

Corey  71

Corgin  57

Cornell  100

Cornier  89

Cornwall  11-12, 15, 16, 23, 24

Coronell  100

Cortes, Hernan  33

Cortland/ Cortlandt/Courtlandt, van  94, 100, 103

Costa, de/da  29, 84, 147, 152, 158, 164, 185

Costas  56, 57, 136; see also Costa

Cothoneau  142

Cotman  128

Cotton  67

Coulon  142

Courland  87

Coursey  125

Courson  134

Courtong  see  Courtonne

Courtonne  167

Cousin/Cussen/Cousins  151

Cousseau  88-89

Cowan/Cowen  36, 113

Cowl/Cowell  102

Cox/Coxe  167, 170, 186

Craddock  66

Cramer  121

Crane  79

Cray  91

Creek Indians  148, 167, 170, 172

Creek Mary  164

Cressman  118

Cresson  89

Crispel  89

Croatians  48, 50

Crohan  118

Crommelin  97-98, 150, 154

Cromwell  48, 137; Oliver 9, 96

Cross  118, 167

Crosse, Sir Robert  15

Crothaire  153

Crouch  126

Crowder  53

Cruger  98, 115

Cruz  30, 34, 167

Cuba  29-31

Cumberford  134

Cumberland Gap  36

Cumbo  51

Cummings/Cummins  148

Cuntz  see Koons/Kuntz

Curacao  98

Currier  81

Cushman  77

Cussen see Cousin

Custis  56, 57, 136

Cuyler  98

Cyprus  89, 108

Cyrus  112

Czech  53

Czepler  121

Dakes  124

Dalbo  117

Dale, Thomas, Sir  52

Damaris  66

Damen  89

Dana  67

Danan/Danna  155

Dandridge  59

Dane  70

Danforth  81

Danielsen  90

Danin  113

Dare  36, 50

Dare, Ananais  14

Dare, Virginia  50

Dargent  151

Darien  165, 167, 170

Darrah  117

Darrell  100

Dasher  166

Dashiell  128

Davenport  43, 137

David   11, 25, 35-36, 43, 66, 67, 91, 100, 109, 114, 177, 178

Davidson  115

Davies  99

Davis  43, 70, 119, 126, 128, 138, 170

Dawes  67, 184

Day  70, 116

Deane  185

Deborah  72

DeBrahm  170

Decker  100

Declaration of Independence  98, 183

Dee  14, 178; John 14, 21-22, 178-79

Defoe, Daniel  84, 167

Dela  177

Delancey  43, 94, 103, 115

Delano  63, 101-2

Delaware  88, 184; Lord  52

Delegal  167

Delgado  167

Delieben  187

Delmar, Jorge  29

Demarest  89

D’Embrun/D’Ambrain see Dombrain

Demery  51

Demetres/Demetrius  167

Denis  155

Denmark  119, 153, 169, 178

Denne  187; see also Denney; Dennie

Denney/Denny  137, 155-57, 185

Dennie  185

Derbyshire  78

Dericksen  89

Descartes, Rene  84

D’Esmiers  154

Destemple  167

Deval  165

Deveaux/Devaux  146, 148, 167

Devereux, Robert 20, 21

Devon 11-12, 23

Dewes/Dews  114; see also Dues

Diamond/Dyamond  117

Dias/Diaz  14, 18, 21, 28, 31, 70, 116, 126, 147; Pedro 14

Dicer  70

Dick  184

Dickinson  184

Dieppe  17

Digby  162

Dinah  116

Dinana  120

Dingasey  117

Dionysus  175, 185

Disharone  126

DNA  11-12, 16, 26-27, 29, 31, 33, 35-38, 72-73, 137

DNA Consultants  38

Dobb  137

Dobree  184

Dod/Dodd  114, 178

Dody  67

D’Olbreuse  154

Dolen  137

Doll  121

D’Olier  152

Dombrain  152

Dooly/Dooley  167

Dorcas  79, 126

Doty  66

Douai  167

Doublehead  120

Doubt  67

Doudel  114

Dougherty  170

Dourado, Fernaõ Vaz  15

Douw/Dow/Dowe  100

Drake, Sir Francis  15-16, 23, 47-48, 144

Draper  115

Drayton  148

Drelincourt  152

Dresler  167

dress and costume  60, 104-105

Drexel/Drexler/Drechsler  120

Driver  119

Droz  152

Duarte  30

Dubnow, Simon  64

Dubourdieu  152

Duenkel  114

Dues  167

Duesen, van  100

Duffe/Duffey  134, 184

Duffua  117

Dull, Keith  114-15

Dullea  167

Dumas  67

Dundas  115

DuPont  103

Duppa, Thomas, Sir  179

Duran/Durant  28, 34, 170

Durie/Dury  89, 152

Dussen, van der  148

Dutch East India Company  39, 83-84

Dutch West India Company  39, 85-86

Dutcher  100

Duval  152

Duycking/Duyckinck   90, 98

Duyou  89

Duyts  89

Dyck, van  88, 94

dyestuffs  83-84, 148

Dyott  178

Eachus  116

Earl Marshall of England  186

Earle  135

Eason/Jason  53

Eastey/Esty  68, 70

Easton  79

Eaton  66, 69, 106

Ebbing  91

Ebenezer, Ga.  165

Edaliah/Edeliah  124

Eder  119

Edinburgh  160, 182

Edna  177

Eelckens  85

Egypt  174-75, 187

Eida  177

El Mer  67

Elahmi  174

Elam  137

Eleazar  112

Elfe  184

Eli see Ely

Elias  174

Elijah  174

Eliot/Elliott  57, 132, 167, 184, 187

Elizabeth I  9, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 51, 63

Elkanah  77, 85, 112

Ellam  174

Ellard  156

Ellery  187

Ellis/Elles  43, 127, 162, 167, 185

Elne  140

Elphinstone/Elphinston  112, 168, 182

Elsasser  114

Elslegal  117

Ely/Eli  54, 112

Eman  178

Emanuel  165

Emerson  185

Emery  67

Emes  185

emir  185

Emmanuel  50

Encyclopedia of Southern Culture  160

Endelmann, Todd  42

Endicott, John  60, 66

Engel/Engles  85, 113, 119

England  127

English  66

Enoch  176

Episcopalians  184, 186

Erouard  142

Eshleman, Henry Frank  114

Esselsteen  100

Essex  70, 77

Estes  68

Esther  72, 116, 119, 124, 164

Etalka  177

Ethel  177

Etter  119

Etting  42, 43

Eveleth  70

Eyck, ten  100

Eycott  168

Eyles  162

Eyseck  114

Fabian  113

Facey/Facy; 185; John  23

Facit see Fawcett

Faddes  116

Faesch  166, 185

Fagan  117

Fahie  167, 169

Fahm  166

Fahnestock  120

Falco/Falcon/Falconer  127, 179

Falk  43

Falkner/Faulkner  127

Fanu, Le  153

Fao  166

Farber, Eli  42

Farr  67

Farrah  128

Farrar  70

Farrett  90

Fasciculus Chemicus  179

Fassell  117

Fassi  14, 185

Fassit see Fawcett

Faure  108

Fausille  152

Fawcett 132

Feber  101

Febos/Febus  3, 32, 37, 168

Fedam  54

Feibus  115

Feisal  114

Fell  111

Ferdinando, Simon  14, 47

Fermoor  76

Fernandes  29

Feron  67

Ferrar/Ferry  52, 63, 113

Ferreby  171

Ferro  30

Fez  166, 168

Fezer  168

Fickling  147

Field  103

Fielder  119

Fiennes  75-76

Fiesel  114

Filoux  142

Finland  87

Firestone  103

Fischer, David Hackett  60

Fischer/Fisher  101, 166, 168

Fish  103

Flatow  166

Fleming  99

Flemish  83-91, 166

Flerl  166

Fletcher  66

Fleury  152

Flood  68, 177

Florence, Florentine  114, 117

Florentina  114

Flores  33, 36, 86, 170

Florida  36, 148, 166, 178

Florio  45

Flory  121

Flowers  50, 86, 115

Fludd  see  Flood

Folsom  185

Fonda  100

food  71, 98, 178

Fookes  134

Foote  69

Forbes  18, 37, 43, 103, 127, 182

Forbes, John & Co.  169

Ford  108

Forest, de  86, 90, 100, 103, 124

Foret , de la  146, 152

Forrentine  117

Fort Pickering  161

Fossett  see  Fawcett

Foucks  115

Fowle  168

Fox:  115, 162, 168, 178;  George  111

Foxley  135

France  143, 159-60, 180

Francis  155, 168

Franck  see  Frank

Francken  185

Franco  127

Frank/Franks  42,  92-93, 115-16, 127, 168; Solomon, rabbi 178

Frankeln  184

Frankfurt  166

Frankish  177

Franklin  43, 181, 184; Benjamin  186

Frantz  115

Fraser/Frazier  103, 168

Frederica, Ga.  167, 170

Frederick County, Md.  118-19

Freeman  51, 67, 127

Freemasonry  162, 173-89

Freitas, de  29

French Canadians  43-44

French/Frensch  78, 100, 115, 128, 185

Frenchmen  140-58, 161, 166, 178

Friedmann  127

Friends of God  114

Frisbey  133

Frise, de  1003

Frobisher, Martin  18-19

Frocis  165

Fry  67, 70

Fuchs  111, 113, 115, 134

Fulk  155

Gabay  41, 97

Gable/Gabel  168

Gabriel  119, 168

Gades  112

Gaeiss/Geiss  113

Gael  127

Gager  67

Gaillard  146

Gaither  128

Galas  168

Galche  168

Gale  127, 143

Gallais  143

Galloway  184

Galphin  168, 170

Galphin, Holmes & Co.  170

Galprin  168

Galwey  115

Gamage, John  20

Gamalise  117

Gambia  87

Gamelin  67

Gammon  117

Gandy  168

Gans see Ganz

Ganz:  113:  Joachim  12, 14, 47, 171

Garber  119

Garcia  34, 53

Gardiner/Gardner   66, 67, 68, 90, 100, 103

Gardines  67

Gare, Le  146, 163

Garland  79

Garret  134

Garvey  186

Gaskill  68

Gass  113

Gates, Sir Thomas  20, 51-52

Gaussen  152

Gedda  117

Geddes  117, 187

Geddy  186

Gee  67, 124

Geiger  146, 179

Geist  103

Gemma   21

Gemmel  113

Gendron  146

Geneste  152

Genoa  13, 18, 27

George  106

George II  148

George III  186

Georgia  159-72, 184, 236-49

Georgia Southern University  171

Gerber, Jane  25

Germans and Germany  83, 94, 112-21, 166, 168, 179

Gerritsen  89

Gersone  28

ghettoes  46, 64

Gibbs  168

Gideon  143

Gil  32

Gilbert:  106; Humphrey, Sir 13, 14, 23, 45

Gilde  97

Giles  66, 68

Gillon  147

Gilman  184-85

Gimbel/Gimble  91, 103

Girtee  117

Gist/Guest  58, 113, 129, 137-39, 171, 184, 188

Gitlitz, David  14

Givens  37

Glasick  113

Glass  108

Glasscock  178

Glasser  113

Glick  121

Gloucester  69-70, 105

Glover, Jose  63

Gnostics  175-76, 181, 184

Goar  171

Godfrey  134

Godyn  86

Goff/Goffe/Gough  66

Goins  37

Gold  112

Goldsborough  133

Goldsmith  124-25, 168, 185

Goldstone  67

Goldthwaite  68

Goldwire  168

Gomery  117

Gomez  34, 49, 92-93:  Luis Moses 92-93

Gomez Mill House  92

Gomez Robledo, Francisco  34

Gonson   18

Good  37, 71, 121

Goodale/Goodall  68, 80

Gooding  125

Goodman  43, 66

Goodwin  43

Gookin  53

Gording  126

Gordon  37, 43, 162, 168

Gorges  63

Gorman  184

Gosnold, Bartholomew, Capt.  51, 181

Goss  113, 152

Gosset  152

Goujon  143

Gould  68, 103

Gouldsmith 54

Gouverneur  98

Gower  171

Goya/Goyer  153

Gozzi  152

Grace  165

Gracey  116

Gracia  116, 137

Graeme  187

Graff, de  114

Graham  99

Granger/Grainger  134, 186

Granville   24, 171

Gratz  42, 137

gravestones  120-21

Grazillier  90

Great Seal of the United States  184

Great Wagon Road  150

Greece  119, 158

Greek names  155, 171

Green/Greene  47, 50, 91, 117, 124

Greenville/Greenfield  47

Gregg  43

Gregory  137

Grenville, Sir Richard  22-24

Greville  148

Grey   18; Lady Jane 21

Grice  51

Grimes  51, 57

Groen  91

Grootinhuis, ten  83

Gross/Grossman  72, 113

Grotius, Hugo  83

Grunau  166

Gually/Guale  153

Guanajatabeye Indians  29

Guanches  27

Guerard  146

Guerin  168

Guerry/Guerra  143

Guess/Guest see Gist

Guggenheim  53

Gugul  168

Guillot  153

Guindi/Gundi  166

Guindre  166

Guion  142

Guirard  168

Gulet/Goelet  98, 185

Gunter  166

Gur  113

Gurganus  53

Guthrie, James  38

Guyenne  141

Guyon  153

Guzman  32

Gypsies; see Romani

Haak  179

Haal  116

Habacki  117

Habersham  170, 184

Hackett  134

Hadrian  175

Haes  147

Haga  116

Hagar  114

Haggara  54

Hagger, Nicholas  180-81

Hague, The  90

Haim/Haym  54, 92

Hair  118

Hakluyt, Richard  14, 23, 45, 63

Hala  118

Halam  54

Hale/Heale.Hales  18, 37, 53, 67, 162

Halfbreeds  161

Hall  128

Haman/Hammann  113

Hamburg  42

Hamel  86

Hamer  133

Hamet  177

Hamilton  43, 115-16, 168:  Alexander  98

Hamlin  79

Hamm 168, 169

Hammon  114

Hammond  133

Hamon  124, 129, 153

Hamor 52, 54

Hancock  184

Hand  155

Hanel  88

Hanna  155

Hannah  50-51, 72, 79

Harad/Harrod  170

Harby  43

Hari/Harry  113

Harlan  125

Harlem, N.Y.  88-90

Harman  134, 162

Harmon  146

Harnett  186

Harriot, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Harris   3, 23, 53, 168, 170, 185; Leon 3

Hart   13, 42, 43, 70, 97, 113, 115, 118, 171, 184, 185, 186

Hartlib  178

Hartman  113, 119

Harvard College  81

Harvey, Dionys  14

Harwood  127

Hasbroucq  89

Hasell  117

Hasselaar  83

Hava  116

Havre, Le (French port)  17

Hawkes  70

Hawkins  15, 43, 170; Sir John  16-18, 144

Hay/Hays  42, 43, 91, 97, 113, 118, 124, 185

Hayak  179

Hayim  113, 135; see also Haim; Chaim

Hayman/Heyman  116

Hayms  54

Hayne  148

Hazard/Hasaret/Hassard  153, 168

Heard  168

Heathecote  97, 162

Heaton, Ronald F.  184

Heays  135

Hebrew  56, 62, 126-27, 132, 171, 174-75, 178, 179, 186

Hebron  79, 117, 127

Heinle  166

Helfenstein  166

Helmsley  135

Helvinstine  168

Hendricks  42, 94, 164

Henriques/Henriquez  41, 94, 128

Henry  42, 43, 58-59, 128:  Patrick 58-59

Henry VIII  9, 13, 17

Hepburn  127

heretic  114

Hermes Trismegistus  176, 179

Hernandez  28

Heron  168, 185

Heroy/Heouida  142

Herrera  33

Herrick  68

Hershey  119

Hertz  114

Hewes  47, 67

Hey see  Hay

Heyrman, Christine  69-72

Heysig  179

Hezron  77

Hibberd  116

Hibron  117

Hill  131, 134

Hilton  145

Hime  117

Hingham, Mass.  78

Hiram  134, 175

Hird  see  Heard

Hirsch  119, 168

Hirschman, Elizabeth Caldwell  182

Hite  57

Hoffman  91

Holiday  124, 133

Holland  100, 162, 184

Homans  67

Homem  67

Hood  127

Hoopes  116

Hopwell  126

Horn/Horne, (van)  68, 99, 100

Horry/Hori  143, 146

Horsmanden, Mary  55

Houston  37, 43

Howard  5, 43, 137

Howard, Sir Charles (admiral)  17

Howell  40, 103

Howland  102

Hucks  162

Hud/Hut  127

Hudde  83

Hudson  128, 148

Huffnagle  116

Huger  146, 163

Hughes  162; see also Hewes

Huguenot Society of America  149 

Huguenots  19, 29, 41, 52-54, 56, 68, 86-88, 91, 95, 99-100, 108, 114, 118, 140-58, 163, 166

Huldah  72

Hungar  85

Hungary  45, 85, 114

Hunt, (de la)  43, 125;  Robert, Rev.  51

Hurd  see Heard

Hussy  127

Hutchinson  66, 69, 87, 187

Hutto  146

Hyam/Hyams  117, 165

Hyatt/Hyett  57, 127

Hyman/Hymen  116, 117

Hynson  128

Ibanez  30

Iconoclasts  114

Idris  176

imam  178

Inabinet  146

India  85, 174

Indian traders  221-23, 234-35

Ingersoll  68

Inigo  178

I’on  168

Ioor  147

Irby  155

Irish  106, 149-50, 155, 167, 170

Iroquois Indians  58, 96

Isaac/Isaacs  91, 114, 128, 168, 179, 184

Isabella  99

Isacks  see  Isaacs

Isacksen  90

Ishmael  116, 174

Isle of Man  137, 187-88

Isles  162

Ismali Muslims  174

Israel  41, 113, 116, 154, 164, 169; Israel 184; see also Ben Israel

Issachar  100, 116

Italian names  155, 163, 164

Itta  176-77

Izard  148

Izman  168

Jabel  175

Jabez  67

Jachin  179, 184

Jackson  43

Jacob/Jacobs  50, 51, 54, 68, 71, 83, 87-88, 97, 99, 113, 116, 118, 128, 167

Jacobeans  181

Jacobs, Joseph  3, 25

Jacoby  121

Jacome  29

Jadwyn  124

Jael  112, 134

Jafar  67

Jamaica  47, 91, 95, 146

James  147

James IV  183

Jamestown  51-53, 185

Jamison  185

Jappie  117

Jaquett  184

Jarvis  67

Jasper  106

Jay  91, 103;  John 184

Jeanneret  168

Jeansack  168

Jefferson, Thomas  73, 106, 181

Jeffries  67

Jekabs  87

Jemboy  51

Jemima  128, 139

Jenkinson  125

Jerald  67

Jewish Publication Society  186

Jews:  anti-Catholicism  64-65, 184; Ashkenazi  38, 43, 68, 92-93, 100, 112-3, 143, 164, 166, 189; Caribbean  40-42; diaspora of 14, 45-46, 98, 128-29, 184, 189;  Dutch  83-85, 100, 125, 179; Egyptian  128-29, 175-76; expulsions 7-9, 13, 21, 45-46, 69, 64, 84, 140-41, 189; in finance 9, 11, 21, 23, 51, 72, 91, 103, 160, 165, 174, 186; in Freemasonry 173-89; French 25, 54, 100, 140-41, 189; in London 141, 159, 164; naming practices 3, 66, 68, 77, 91, 113-14, 116, 128, 142, 174, 191-200; as merchants 1-2, 9, 39, 55-57, 64, 72, 85-91, 98; Moroccan 13; numbers 26, 44, 148; occupations  41, 52, 63, 90-91, 108-9, 118, 171, 174; as physicians  41, 135, 154, 178; rituals 68, 86, 91, 111, 174, 177-78, 201-2; Roman 26, 91, 141; secularization, 132; Semitic  38; Sephardic 25-27, 39-40, 43, 46, 64, 68, 128-29, 164, 166-67, 189, 192-200

Jimenez  34

Jirael  117

Joachime  90

Joder  see  Yoder

Johnson  43, 115, 168, 169

Johnson, Ben  180

Johnston  51, 96

Jones  51, 124; George F. 166; Inigo 178

Jordan  53

Josephus  41

Jouet  143

Jouneau  142

Journee  89

Jubel  175

Judah  124, 126

Judd  117

Judea  116

Judith  72, 177, 178

Juiman  54

Juliana  135

Jump  125

Juneau  97

Junia  67

Kalonymos  197

Kalteisen  146

Kammer  118

Kane  134

Kaph  112

Kapp  113

Karel  83

Karsens  89

Kaskaskia  160

Kast  67

Katz  90, 113

Kauffmann/Kaufman  119

Kay, (de)  91, 97, 168

Keene  185

Keeton  137

Kelkta  100

Kelly, Edward  179

Kelpius  114

Kendall, George  51

Kennedy  37, 43, 124, 137, 168

Kentucky  136-37, 186

Kettering  119

Keulon, van  84

Keymis, Lawrence  15

Keziah  126

Khazars  114

Khori/Cori  71

Kibbey  68

Kierside  90

Kimberling  119

King  113, 116, 119, 184

King David’s Lodge  187

Kinloch  147

Kinser  119

Kintz  113

Kissam  94

Klein  119

Kline  118-19

Kniffen  100

Knox, John  110

Kocherthal  101

Koenig  113, 119

Koger  137

Koons/Kuntz  100, 113, 118, 121

Koppel  68, 114

Krohn/Kron  113, 118-19

Kronenshelt  67

Kronin  113

Kugel  168

Kuhn  113, 115, 119

Kunst  101

Kuntz  see  Koons

Kupferstein, von  32

Kuykendal  146

LaBadie  179

LaBarree, Benjamin  65

Labat/Labatt  19, 41, 43, 153

Labon  43, 168

Lacy  178

Laet, de  86

Lafayette  184

LaFon  91

Lago  111

Lagrange  100

Lamb  127

Lambert  73

Lameth  175

Lancelot  80

Lane, Ralph  23, 47

Langlais  150

Langley  43, 153

Lansing  98

L’Apostre  162

Lareux  125

Laroche  see  Roche

Larochefoucauld  153

Lasse  117

Lassell/Lazel  128

Latrobe  184

Latvia  87

Laudonniere  46

Lauer  113

Laughman  121

Laurens  146

Laurent  91

Laval, de  151

Lavalade, de  151

Lavender, Abraham  140

Law:  John 159-60

Lawne  53

Lawrence  99

Lawson  43

Layard/Layarde, de  153

Laybon  see  Labon

Laydon, John  51

Laykan  117

Lea  184

Lea/Leah  116, 119, 126

Leal  33

Leavitt/Levet  54, 67, 76-80

Lebo/Leebow  161

Lebon  168

Leda/Ledah  124

Ledesma  165

Lee  56-58, 99, 184; Richard, II  57

LeFebre  89

Lefferts  98

Leflore/Lefleur  170

Lefroy/Leffroy  153

Legare  see  Gare

Legendres  163

Leghorn  27, 87, 129, 153

LeGuidon, Ormus  173

Leiden  51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 90, 126

LeMere  178

LeNoir  112

Leon, de  164, 166, 168

LeRoy  87, 89, 100

LeSage  161, 169

L’Escury, de  151

Lesher  100

Leslie  37, 170

LeSueur  89

Levan  113

Levandt  113

Levant Company  19

Lever/Levor/Levot  146

Leverett  69

Levet see Leavitt

Levi   14, 19, 54, 80, 97, 99, 113, 116, 128, 184; see also Levy

Levin  126

Levina  116, 132

Levinus  98

Levirate law  21, 127, 133, 136, 154

Levis  116

Levy  115, 118, 164-65, 187; Asser  42

Levyans  54

Lewers  113

Lewis  43, 132, 168, 170, 184, 185, 187

Lichfield  173-74

Lilly  177

Lincoln  84;  Abraham  79, 84

Lindo  147, 148

Lines/Lion  168

Lion  see  Leon; Lyon; Lines

Lippy  119

Lisbon  98

Liske  53

Lithuania  87, 148, 189

Little/Little  121, 162

Littler  174

Livingston/Livingstone  96-100, 103, 184, 185

Livorno  see  Leghorn

Lloyd  43, 135

Loackermanns  91

Lobato  153, 169

Locke, John  84, 145

Lodwick  96

Loew  see  Low

Logan  146

Logier  153

Lok/Louk/Locke   19, 84, 91

Lollards  114

Lombards  163

Lombe  163

Long  170

Long Island   134

Looney  37, 137, 187-88; Moses 187

Lopez  34, 42, 164; Rodrigo, Dr.  9, 51

Lopez de Mendizaval, Bernardo  34

Lora/Lohra/Loray/

Lore  113

Lorich/Lorich/Lorig  146

Lott  94

Louis XIV  160

Louisiana  160

Lourdes  146

Loureiro  29

Lovel  186

Lovelace/Loveless  137

Lovelin  127

Lovina  79

Low/Lowe/Loew/Loewe  80, 113, 128, 168, 169, 170

Lowell  80-81, 103, 185

Lowrey/Lowry  118

Luca  91

Lucas  89, 146, 148

Lucena  97, 165

Lucero  34

Lucke  117

Lucretia  50

Ludlow  97

Ludolph  178

Lula  155

Lumbee Indians  50, 51

Luna   18, 34, 35, 112, 137, 187

Lunel  140

Luria/Lurie  113, 118

Lutherans  42, 112-14, 166, 217-21

Lydia  77, 116, 118, 171

Lydius  94

Lynn, Mass.  70

Lyon/Lyons  42, 118, 164; Moses 42

maaseh  128

Mabel  116

Mace  124

Machado  29, 164

Machir ben Habibai  25, 76, 140-41

Mackay  170

MacKuen  170

Macon  186

Madagascar  100

Madariega, Salvador de  8

Madeiras  29, 95

Magalotti  178

Magellan  29

magic  20, 22, 175-76, 179

Magnon  91

Magus of Freemasonry, The  173

Mahaffa  154

Mahallah  154

Mahzig  143

Maimonides  181

Mainwaring  174

Makhir  see  Machir

Makissack  185

Malacca  84

Malea  161

Malka, Jeffrey  39

Mangin  154

Manigault  146, 163

Mann  43

Manner  127

Mannheim  88-89

Mansel/Mansell  124

manufactures  52, 144, 151, 163

Marat  56

Marcer  168

Marcus  128

Marcus, Jacob R. 41-42

Mare  186

Marest see Demarest

Mariah  112

Marie Antoinette, queen of France  177

Marin  30

Marino  170

Marion  146

Maris  116

Marius  91

Marks/Marx  91, 117, 171

Marquez/Marques  91

Marranos  1, 27, 41, 63, 70, 86-91, 95, 179; see also Conversos

Marseilles  170, 185

Marsh/Marshman  70, 134

Marshall  116, 184

Martin  43, 119, 185

Martineau  142

Martinez  34

Martyn  162, 168

Maryland  123-39, 167, 223

Masicq/Mazyck  143, 163

Mason, George  55

Massa/Masse/Massey  128-29

Massachusetts  60-82, 212-16; Freemasons 185

Massachusetts Bay Colony  66

Massey  116, 124, 128-31

Maszig  100

Mather  67

Mathy  154

Matson  96-97

Matthysen  89

Mau  85

Mauer  113

Maule  70, 71

Maurer  114

Maurice   20, 85, 91

Maurits  90

Maxey  129

May/Mays  62, 85, 121, 124

Maycock  53

Mayden  89

Mayow  117

Mazieres  154

Mazza  129

McAbee  37

McBean  168

McBlair  43

McCowen  118

McDermott, James 48

McDonald  188

McEvers  100

McGillivray  168

McKee  170

McMillan  125

McQueen  170

Mead  100

Mears  42, 168

Medina  32

Meeks  157

Meir  21, 94, 97, 168

Melle, de  29

Mellon  103

Melungeons  17, 23, 36-39, 51, 54, 72-72, 81, 119, 136, 161, 167, 170, 172

Memphis  160-61

Mendenhall  184

Mendez  32, 73, 169, 184

Mendoza  46, 84

Mennonites  114

Menoah  171

menorah  179

Mercier  154

Mercury  179

Mesick/Messick  100

Mesquita, de  169

messiahs, false  47

Messier  90

Mestayer/Metayer/

Matityah  143

mestizo  33

Mettauer  119

Mexico  33-34

Meyer, de  88

Meyer/Meyre, (de)  89, 97

Michael/Michaels  42, 43, 168

Michel  168

Michener  116

Michie  147, 187

Mickve Israel Congregation  184

Microcosmus Hypochondriacus  179

Miles   18

Millam/Millim  168

Miller  40, 134

Milton, Giles  48

Minelly/Minelli  128

mining  11-13, 47, 171

Minis  168, 170

Minor/Mainor  50

Minter  65

Minuit, Peter  87

minyan  124

Mira  116-17

Mirabal  32

Mirfin  77

Miriam  72, 81

Mississippi  160

Mitchell  43, 148

Moesman  88

Moffat  100

Mohammed  177, 179

Moises/Moyshe  54, 178

Molina  40

Money  133

Monfort  166

Moniac/Monaque  170

Monroe  184

Monroux, de  178

Montagne  88-89

Montagu  148

Montaigut  168

Montana/Montanha  88

Montbrai  186

Montel  41

Montesinos  32

Montfort, Simon de  140

Montgomery  146

Montgomery, Ala.  170

Moon  112

Moor, (de)  86, 113, 162

Moore  37, 43, 127, 131, 146, 148, 177, 185

Mooser  113

Mophat  see  Moffat

Moravians  166

Moray  178

Mordecai/Mordechai  42, 128, 131, 164-65, 170, 186

More  65, 108

Moreau  54, 100

Morell/Morrel  154, 168

Moreno  42, 114

Morgan  37, 103

Morgenstern  114

Moriscos  7, 9, 14,  17, 21, 24, 30, 46, 52, 110, 124, 126, 132, 144, 154

Moro District  161

Morocco  68, 90, 106, 177-78, 185

Morrey  186

Morris  96-100, 117:  Gouverneur  96-97; Robert  74, 165

Morrison  37, 43, 170

Mosco  49

Mosell  85

Moser  113, 116

Moses  113, 117, 118, 164, 177-78

Moshe  116

Mosquera/Mosquero  31

Moss  117

Mosser  113

Mott  184

Motta, de la  164, 187

Motte  146, 164

Motteair  168

Moulin  54

Moulton  184

Mournier  143

Mowbray  186

Muche  100

Muir  162, 186

mulattoes  125

Mullica  117

Munich  170

Muniz  32

Murer  118

Murfree  186

Murhead  113

Murr  113

Muscovy Company  19, 22

Musgrove, Mary  164

musicians  13, 55, 153, 185

Musick  143

Muslims:  in England 11, 177-79; expulsion from Spain 8, 178, 189; in Freemasonry, 173-89; practices  68, 110, 182, 202-203

mustee  170

Muttear  168

Myers, Myer  94, 100, 121, 186

Naar/Narr  41

Nairne  170

Naphthali  113

Napier  177

Narbonne  25, 35, 110, 140-42

Nash  134

Nashville  171

Nasi  140-41

Natchez Indians  160

Nathan  118

Native Americans  38-39, 48-49, 52, 57, 63, 85, 96, 117-18, 144-45, 161

Navarre  141, 179

Nave  188

Neale  186

Negos  179

Negroes  167

Neoplatonism  181

Neu  168

Nevis  146, 169

New  168

New Atlantis  180

New Hampshire  69, 77, 185

New Jersey  182, 184; Freemasons 185

New Madrid  160

New Mexico  34-36, 45

New Netherland and New Amsterdam  83-91, 95, 98, 117

New York:  Freemasons 185

Newberry  37, 43, 70

Newbury, Mass.  80

Newce, William, Sir  53

Newhouse  43

Newman  43

Newport  49, 51

Newport, R.I.  42

Ney  37

Nicasius  106

Nichols  43, 171

Nihil/Nile  117

Nimes  154

No, De la   19, 63, 91, 97

Noah  63, 155, 175

Noble/Nobel  43, 74, 168

Nochem  85

Noel  66

Nooms  85

Norfolk, Duke of  186

Normand/Norman  154

Norris   20, 70, 99, 116

North Augusta, S.C.  162

North Carolina  50-51, 137, 184; Freemasons 185-86

Norton, John, Rev.  63, 69

Norwood  70

Nova Caesarea  185

Novum Organum  180

Noyes  71

Numar  134

Numus Graecus  175

Nunes/Nunez  21, 28, 164, 170, 184

Nurse  70

Oaks  42

Ober  68

Oblinus, van  89

Occaneechi Indians  50; Trail 186

Oceanus  66

Ocosand  54

octoroon  160

Odell  128

O’Farrill, Jose Richardo  30

Ogden  99, 185

Oglethorpe, James  162, 184

OHassan  117

Ohio Company  58

Ohr  113

Olive  74

Oliver  80

Olivera/D’Oliveria  29, 147

Orange  140, 149, 151, 178

oranges; see citrus

Order of the Knights of the Helmet  179-80

Orpha  116, 155

Ortellius, Abraham  15

Os, van  83

Oseas/Osias  116

Osgood  70

Osorio, de  31

Ostenaco  188

Otis  184

Otmar  118

Ottey  174

Ottolenghi  163, 168

Ottoman Empire  2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 67, 90, 119, 145, 188

Ouizman  161

Oxford University  154, 173

Paca  124

Pace  53

Pache  124

Pacheco  98

Page/Pages  51, 57, 161, 168

Pagit/Paget  174

Paine, Thomas  73-75

Palatinate  100-1, 114, 118, 146, 166, 178

Palestine  154

Pamunkey Indians  51

Panther-Yates, Donald N.  163

Pantoja  32

Panton, Leslie & Co.  169

Papin  91

Papists  69

Papo/Papot  91, 168

Paracelsus  179

Pardo  32, 41, 144, 187

Paris  160, 168

Parisis  88

Parker  70, 137

Parmenas  125

Parmenius, Stephen  14, 45

Parmentier  89

Parmley  137

Parquet/Parke  40, 56

Parrat  124

Parret  132

Parris  68, 71, 146

Parrot  133

Parry  168

Paterson/Patterson  184, 185

Patey  128

Patte  106

Paulet  179

Paulicians  114

Paun  83

Pavey  168

Pavia  168

Pavo  128

Pavoncello  128

Pawley  147

paynim  173

Peach/peaches  128, 164

Peacock  128, 179

Pedroe  117

Peiser  91

Pelgrom  85

Pell  184

Pena  45

Penn, William  104-110, 121

Pennock  116

Pennsylvania  104-22, 166, 217-23; Freemasons  186; Lancaster 42

Pensacola  169

Pepe/Pepi  177

Pepin II  177

Pepin the Older  177

Pepper  112

Pepys  177

Percival  80, 162

Percy  51

Pereira  29, 103

Perez  28, 68

Perkins  78

Perla  165

Perrin  154

Perry  37, 51, 53, 66, 96, 146, 170, 184

Perryman  170

Persian  79-80, 83, 88, 113, 126, 128, 174

Persis  79

Petit  41

Petman  47

Petrie  100

Peyre  146

Peyster, de  98, 100, 103

Peyton  184

Phar  67

Pharabus  171

Pharez  68

Pharrow  112

Phartouat  29

Philadelphia  41-42, 115, 117-18, 161

Philip/Philips  see  Phillips

Philipse see Phillips

Phillipini  171

Phillippi  113, 119

Phillips   2-3, 17, 18, 42, 43, 94-96, 103, 115, 127, 128, 132, 164, 168

Phillipse see Phillips

Philliptenia  119

Philpot, John  21

Phipps  137

Phoebe  171

Phoebus  115

Phoenicians  11-12, 25, 28, 33, 73

phoenix  179

Picards  186

Pickett, Albert James  170

Piercey, Abraham  52

Pierpoint  53

Pierry  118

Pigod  186

Pigues/Piggs  147

Pincas/Pinhas  174

Pinckney  146, 148

Pinket/Pinquet  174

pirates and privateers  8, 13, 15, 31, 48, 90, 95

Pires  29

Pitts  72

Place  168

Plancius/Planck, ver  84, 97

Plese  100

Plessy  168

Plymouth  11, 18, 106

Plymouth Company  65

pogroms  140-41, 166

Pogue  41

Polak  41

Poland  51, 148, 189

Polish  90, 97, 121, 162, 165, 179

Polk  41

Pollard  178

Polock  97

Ponte/Ponto   18

Pontington  130-31

Poole  53

Pooley  53

Pope  184

Poppin  83

Porcher  146

Port, du  152

Portuguese  124, 141, 155

Pory, John  52, 63

Powell  53

Powers  37, 76

Pratt  162

Presto  89

Price  43, 185

Pricoleau  146

Priest  66

Prince/Printz  70, 79, 90, 185

Pringle  147, 186

Prise  117

Proctor  70

Protestants  9, 17, 19, 21, 41, 75, 86, 104-22, 141, 170

Provence  140

Puerto Rico  31-32

Pulitzer  103

Purdy  100

Purnell  132

Purrysburgh  120, 146, 165-67, 169

Putnam  70, 71: Israel 184

Pyncheon  66, 99

Pysdry  90

Pythagorean  184

quadroon  170

Quakers  42, 68, 70-73, 104-22, 125, 131, 139, 171-72:  meeting house 74

Queen Anne  115

Raboteau  154

Racial Exclusionary Act of 1790  3

Rackliffe  132

Rae  168

Rafael  128

Rain/Raines  126, 155

Raina  154

Rainsborough   106

Raisen/Rasin  126-27

Raleigh, Sir Walter  10, 12-15, 22, 23, 47

Ralph/Rafe  128

Rambo/Rambeaux  117

Ramey  54

Ramirez  32

Rand  67

Randolph  184

Rangel  32

Raphael   23, 155, 168

Rappe  143

Rasieres, de  85-86

Rassin  143

Rast  146

Rastell  106

Ratcliffe, John, Capt.  51

Rattier  91

Rattling Gourd, Daniel  188

Ravel  41

Ravenel  146

Rawlins  146

Raymond  153, 168; see also Reymond

Rayner, John  63

Re  142-43

Rea/Ray  68, 118; see also Rae; Rhea

Read/Reed/Reade  132-33

Reason  128

Rebecca  177

Redheaded Will, chief  188

Reform Judaism  158

Regreny  142

Reintzel  184

Reis  168

Remi  54

Remsen  98

Renssalaer, van  86, 90, 99

Reseaux  142

Reson  88

Reupel  94

Revere, Paul  67, 184, 185

Revil  50

Rey  168

Reyes  30

Reymond/Raimund/Raymond   47, 68, 168

Reyne  126, 155

Reynet, de  154

Reynolds, Joshua, Sir  188

Rezin  171

Rezio  169

Rhea  185

Rhett  147

Rhoda  116, 171

Rhode Island  87, 106, 186-87

Rhodes/Roads  112, 116

Ribault  144

Rice  43, 137

Richards  53

Rickman  73

Riddell  142

Ringgold  124

Ringo  91

Rittenhouse  74

Rive, La  153

Roanoke colony  14, 19, 47-51, 144

Robbins/Robins  132-33

Robena  112

Roberson/Robeson  171

Robertson  171

Robin   20

Robinet  143

Robinson  43, 65, 102, 171, 133

Robles  41

Roby  67

Rocca  162

Roche, de la  41, 153, 162, 168

Rochelle, La  17, 29, 91, 142-43, 146, 150

Rockefeller  103

Roderick  54

Rodrigo de Triana  8

Rodriguez de Matos, Don Francisco  34

Rodriguez/Rodrigues  28, 54

Roelfsen  90

Rogers  43

Roman  116

Romani  39, 160, 162, 203-4

Romeyn  91

Romig/Romich  116

Roosevelt  98, 101-3

Rosa  29, 133

Rose  101, 116, 126

Roseanna  132

Rosenfeld  98

Rosicrucians  179-80

Rosman  100

Ross  133-34, 147, 170

Roth  133

Roth, Cecil  47, 140

Rotterdam  97, 99, 108

Rouen  17, 89, 143, 144, 152

Rouse  128

Roussall  132

Royal Society (England)  178, 181

Rubel  94

Rubin, Saul Jacob, rabbi  166, 184, 236

Ruch, Benjamin  74

Rudisill/Rudisell  119

Ruhammah, Ammi  69

Ruine, de  89

Ruock  134

Rupp, I. Daniel  101

Russell  42, 43, 164, 170

Russia  148, 178

Rutgers  98

Rutsen  100

Ruvigny, de  151

Ryan  137

Ryser  85

Sabra  124, 133

Sachs/Sax  168

Sack  161, 168

Saenger  120

Safed  116

Safred  116

Sage  161

St. Albans  175

St. Augustine, Fla.  48, 144, 148

St. Clair  183, 184

St. Croix  98

St. Julian, de  167

St. Kitts (Christopher)  146, 168, 169

St. Leger/St. Leger   13, 55-56

Saintee  125

Saladin/Saladine  113, 116

Salas  31

Salee, van/Sallee  90, 137

Salem  71, 117

Salle  143

Salme  119

Saloman  165; Haym  42, 184

Salome  117

Salter  186

Saltonstall  66

Salvador  147, 158, 164

Salzburgers 165-67, 170

Sammes  162; see also Semmes

Sammis  88

Sampson  66, 79

Sams  148

Samuel/Samuels  134, 177

Sanchez  34

Sanco  174

Sand Mountain  187

Sanders  51, 94

Sanderson, William  14

Sands  52

Sandt, van  134

Sandusky  137

Sandys, Edwin, Sir  52, 63

Sanftleben  166

Sangree  113

Sankey  174

Santa Elena Colony  144

Santen  97

Sarazia  54

Sarfati  39

Sargent  81

Sassin  54

Sassoon  54, 177

Saul/Saull/Sall  117, 177, 184

Saunders  134

Sausssure, de  146

Savage  185

Savannah  184

Savell  67

Saville   19, 20

Savoy  178

Savoy  54

Saxe-Coburg  154

Saxony  178

Saye and Sele, Lord  69, 75-76; see also Fiennes

Saylor  37

Sayre  103

Scandinavians  83

Schaack, van  96, 102

Schaffer  184

Schenk, Leon  159

Scheretz  113

Schermerhorn  100

Schmael  116

Scholl  121

Schollay  185

Schorr  148

Schrag  119

Schrock  119

Schubrein  166

Schuelermann  118

Schuneman  101

Schure, van der  106

Schuyler  94-96

scientists  178-80

Scotland  99, 160, 182, 188

Scots-Irish  36, 38, 121, 146-47, 150, 171-71

Scott  51, 125, 127, 137

Scottish  98, 123, 165-66, 169-71, 185

Scribner  51

Secundus  178

See  119

Sefer Yetzirah  179

Seixas  154, 164, 187

Selitha  126

Sella  175

Sem  83

Semah  83

Semmes  100, 124; see also Sammes

Senior  169

Sequeira  164

Sequoyah  137-38

Seriah  79

Sevier  171, 184

Seymour   11

Shadlock   68

Shahan  132

Shakespeare, William  179

Shardlow  108

Sharick  117

Sharon  126

Sharp  133, 137

Sharpless  117

Shaw  43, 168

Shawnee Indians  120

Sheaffe  100

Shearith Israel, Congregation  93, 103

Sheeley/Schiele  146

Sheftall  165, 168, 184

Shelton  59, 171

Shem  67, 83, 167, 175

Shem Tov  174

Shepard/Sheppard  67, 170

Sherause/Sherouse  168

Shered  155

Sheriff  154, 168

Shiekell  117

Shilleman  118

Shin  112

Shippen  186

ships  55, 94-95, 98, 100, 166, 170:  Abraham 54; Alice 54; Anne 162; Ark 123; Ark Royale 17; Bonaventure 54; The Charming Martha 161; David 54; Dorothy 23; Dove 123; Dragon 72; Elizabeth  23, 54; Gilded Otter 88; Globe 54; Golden Hind 15; Happy Return 132; Henry and Francis 182; Judith 15; King of Prussia 73; Lion 23; Lydia 118; Mayflower  60, 65, 69, 79, 106; Revenge 24; Roebuck 23; Sea Venture 52; Supply 53; The Swan and the Pasha 15; The Seaman’s Secrets 15; Tiger 23

Shirley  63, 96

Shoeck  100

Shore  54

Shubael  66

Shuler  146

Sibyl/Sybilla  101, 126, 171

Siddon/Sidon  117

Sidney:  Philip, Sir  20, 21; Robert (earl of Leicester)  19-20

Sijmen  85

Silesia  166, 170

silk  57, 112, 163-64

Silva/Sylva  47, 86, 90, 124, 146

Silveira  29

Silver  112

Simcha  127

Simcock/Simcocks  109, 127

Simmon  100

Simmons  124, 146

Simon   12, 85, 113-14

Simpson/Simson  42, 43, 132

Sinaia  155

Sinclair  76, 79, 170

Singer/Singar  117

Sinn  113

Sizemore  37

Skene  173, 180, 182-83

Skidmore  134

slaves  28, 30, 31, 41, 48, 55, 66, 94, 98, 162

Slingerland  100

Sliterman/Sluijterman  168

Sloper  162

Slot  89

Sly/Slye  125

Smith  137, 162: John, Capt.  49-51, 181

Sneden  89

Snyder  119

Soderland, Jean R.   109

Solamona  181

Solomon  97, 113, 117-18, 175-77, 179

Solomon’s Builders  184

Solomon’s Lodge #1  184

Somerset  80

Sonntag  113

Sotheby  132-33

Soto, de  32-34, 70, 118, 134, 144, 193

Soule  66

Sousa/Souza  29

South America  83, 86

South Carolina  98, 140-58, 163-64, 167, 184, 224-35

South Sea Bubble  159-60

Southampton  11, 63

Southbe  132

Southell  148

Spanhauer  113

Spanheim  178

Spanish Inquisition  7-9, 14, 18, 34, 45-46, 89, 111, 113, 140-42, 165

Spann  171

Sparks  170

Specker  118

Speculum Sophicum Rhodostauroticum  179

Speelman  85

spice trade  83

Spielmann  52

Spielmann  85

Spinoza, Benedict de  84

Spotswood, Alexander  59

Sprague  67

Spranger  86

Springer  70

Sproule  185

Spyker  118

Staats  97, 99

Stacey  72

Staeck  89

Stark  185

Starkey  96

Starr, Jehosophat  184

Steel(e)  43

Steffey  119

Stegge, Thomas, Capt.  55

Steinman  117

Stephens  162

Stern, Malcolm, rabbi  43-44, 167

Sterner  121

Stewart  37, 43, 168, 170, 184; see also Stuart

Stiles  184

Stille  117

Stobo  148

Stoever  112-13

Stofell  134

Stone  178

Stoner  121

Stonesfer  121

Storer  155

Story  43, 66, 155

Stuart  181, 185

Stuckey/Stucki  118

Stukeley  47

Stultheus, Elias  160

Stuyvesant, Pieter  87, 92

Suasso  164

Suddarth  155

sugar  27, 30, 55, 66, 98, 169

Suire/Sueiro  91

Surinam  178

surnames:  aliases 39, 89; American Jewish  41-44; English  2-3, 14; etymology of 3, 129; Greek 14, 21, 26, 119, 124-25; Jewish 3, 8, 14, 16, 38, 65-66; in Sangre Judia 14; Melungeon  36-37, 161, 169-70; Moroccan 63, 146, 178; Muslim 2, 11, 31, 54; Norman 4, 12-13, 20, 57, 80, 148, 153, 174, 186; Sephardic 3, 14, 29, 33, 43, 192-200; Turkish 89, 111, 113, 116-18, 127

Surry County, Va.  185

Sussan  54

Susseny  119

Swabians  166

Swamp  118

Swan  185

Swanson  117

Swasey  68

Swedish  29, 86, 90, 117-18, 178

Sweet  51, 68, 81

Swerene  178

Swiss  114-15, 119-20, 165-67

Switzer  121

Sylva Sylvarum  180

Sylvester  68

Syme/Symes  58, 162

Symonds  68

Syng  186

Syria  116, 174

Taaffe  117

Tabbs  124

Tabitha  126, 128, 155

Tagger/Tajer  142

Taine/Tayne/Toynie  87-89

Taino Indians  29, 31

Talbot  187

Taliaferro  164

Talley  37

Tamar  66, 111

Tamberlane/

Tamarlane  126

Tamer  116

Tangier  91

Tankersley  37

Tannatt  169

Tanneke  88

Targe  142

Tartre  54

tau  134

Tauth/Toth  113

Tauvron  143

Tavares  29

Tavares/Tavarez  143

Tawwey  134

Tay, du  142

Taylor  126

Taylor, Alan  136

Telfair  164-65; Museum of Art  164

Templars  173-74, 180, 186

Temple  68, 76, 116, 167

Tench  135

Tennant  169

Tennessee  136-37, 161

Terck  116

Terrin  89

Terry  50

tetragrammaton  179

Teulon/Tholan  154

Teunis  91

Thau  113

Theiis  146

Tholon  154

Thomas  117

Thomas, James Walter  123

Thompson  43

Thorius  154

Thoth  184

tikkun olam  181

Tilghman  133-36

Tilley  66

Tillotson  124-25

Timmerman  117

Timothy  146

Tingell  126

Tishell  117

Titus  116

Tizack  117

Toaes  128

tobacco  55, 123, 160

Tobago  86-87

Tobias  147

Toccoa  154

Toeni, de  89

Tomes  168

Tondee/Tondie  168, 184

Tonti  168

Toohy/Touhey  53, 70, 134

Tookey  70

Tool  118

Toomer  186

Toro  148, 154

Torres  28

Tough  112

Toule  118

Toulon  141

Toulouse  140-41, 152, 154

Tourneir  89

Tov  117, 121

Tovey/Tawey  134

Toweison, William  19

Tower  162

Town & Country 103, 216-17

Town/Towne  70

Trachsel see Troxell

Tradescant  178

transcendentalism  82

tree of life  179

Tremayne   23

Tremi  89

Treutlin  166

Trevas  54

Trobe, La  153

Trower  126

Troxell  119, 120, 121

Truan/Trujan  168

Trujillo  34

Trustees of Georgia  163

Tryon  186

Tuch/Tuchmann  185

Tuckey  185

Tukey  185

Tulliere, du  88

Tumar  186

Tunisia  89, 91, 106, 155

Tupper  185

Turck  101

Turks  11, 39, 54, 68, 90, 106, 116; see also Ottoman Empire
spies and espionage  9, 19, 179

Turnepenny, Zachary  178

Tuscany  178

Tuscarora  Indians  50

Tuscher  118

Twisleton  76

Tyne  69

Tyre  69

Union Society  185

Unselt  166

Urgel  140

Usselinx  90

Utz  121

Uzes  140

Uziel  89

Uzille  89-90

Valentine  42, 43, 113, 184

Valleau  142

Van der Zee, James  90

Van/Vann  170, 188

VanBibber /Van Bebber  125

VanBrugh  185

Vanderbilt  103

Vanderpool  155

VanWyck  185

Varenne, de  150

Vashti  154

Vasquez  31, 144

Vassall  66

Vaughn  137

Vaux  89

Vaz/Vass  41

Vee  91

Velazquez, Diego  30

Venice  178

Venn  66

Verelst  162, 163

Vermeille  88

Vermillion  112

Vernon  162

Verral  74

Verveelen  88

Victoria, queen of Great Britain  154, 177

Vidau  54

Vigil  34

Villareal  31

Vincent/Vincente  143

Viola  119

Violette  138

Virginia  45, 46-59; Freemasons  184, 187; lists of immigrants  204-12

Virginia Company  12, 20, 51-53

Vizard  134

Vlatfoete  84

Voeux, des  151

Vogel  85, 168

Vogullar, Abram  29

Vriedman  127

Vries, de  41, 86, 95

Waldensians  114

Waldman, Felicia  175-76

Wali  112

Wall Street  92

Wallen/Walden  37, 50

Walley  112

Wallis  162

Walloons  41, 53, 62, 87-91, 114, 181

Walsingham, Sir Francis  19, 21

Walton, Izaak  178

Wampler  37, 118-19

Wannamaker  146

Ward   11, 136, 184

Wardell/Wardwell   68, 70

Wardlaw  146

Warner  184, 185

Warren  184, 185

Warrenton, N.C.  185

Warwick  78

Washam  132

Washington  58, 135; George  183, 184

Watauga  136, 161, 171

Waterman  187

Waters  106

Watie  188

Watson  43

Way  168

Webber  188

Weise  161

Welcome  41

Welsh  66, 147

Wesley  99

West  43, 77, 99, 162

West Country gentlemen  10-12, 14, 54

Weston  61, 63

Wexler, Paul  25

Whaley  146

Wharton  178

Whipple  187

Whitaker, Alexander, Rev.  52

White  43, 161, 170, 187; John 49-51

Whitehead  43

Whitehead, Alfred North  139

Whitney  179

Wickes/Wicks  134

Widdos  116

Wiesenthal, Simon  1-2, 8

Wiggans  see Wiggins

Wiggins  50, 168

Wild  147

Wilder  65

Willey  134

William II  149

William III  85

William the Conqueror  4, 76, 129

Williams  43, 50, 51, 68, 187

Wilmer  127

Wilson/Wilsen  43, 85

Wingate  134

Wingfield, Edward  51

Winston  58

Winthrop, John  60, 66

Wise  69, 155, 161, 168, 184

Wiseman  53

witchcraft  70-72, 78

Wizgan  168

Wolf/Wolff/Wolfe  37, 97 , 113, 118-19

Wood  43, 47

Woodward  145-46, 185

Wool  185

Woolley  99

Worrell  126

Wragg  148

Wren  51

Wren, Christopher, Sir  178

Wright  117, 171

Wright, Dudley  177

Wrightsboro  171-72

Wurteh  138

Wurzburg  166

Wyatt  52

Xavier  171

Yacam  116

Yale  69, 103

Yarach  112, 187

Yates  37, 43, 51, 100, 163

Yeamans  145

Yehudit  177

Yemen  145

Yiddish names  121, 126, 155

Yingling  121

Yoachim  116

Yoder  119

Yoel  57

Yomtov  124, 133

York County, Pa.  114-15, 120

Yorke, Sir John  18

Yorkshire  18, 62

Young  43, 137

Yulee  41

Zacharias  116

Zaltman  112

Zanes  117

Zapati  118

Zappali  118

Zarban  117

Zeh  113

Zenger  94

Zepp  119

Zeruiah  79

Zevi  119

Ziegler  146

Zimmerman  114

Zimri  171

Zinn  117

Zipporah  85, 132, 137

Zook  see  Zug

Zorn  166

Zorobabel  128

Zouche   11

Zuckermann, Adolph  140

Zug  116, 119

Zumbrum  119

Zypergus  89

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Bering Land Bridge Research from the Kankakee Swamp in Indiana and Illinois

Monday, March 10, 2014

Research by a Valparaiso University geography professor and his students on the creation of Kankakee Sand Islands of Northwest Indiana is lending support to evidence that the first humans to settle the Americas came from Europe, a discovery that overturns decades of classroom lessons that nomadic tribes from Asia crossed a Bering Strait land-ice bridge. Valparaiso is a member of the Council on Undergraduate Research.

 Dr. Ron Janke began studying the origins of the Kankakee Sand Islands – a series of hundreds of small, moon-shaped dunes that stretch from the southern tips of Lake and Porter counties in Northwest Indiana into northeastern Illinois – about 12 years ago. Over the past few years, approximately a dozen Valparaiso undergraduates have worked with Dr. Janke to create the first detailed maps of the Kankakee Sand Islands, study their composition and survey wildlife and plants inhabiting the islands.

Based upon the long-held belief that most of the upper Midwest was covered by a vast ice sheet up until about 10,000 years ago, Dr. Janke said he and other scientists surmised the Kankakee Sand Islands were created by sand in meltwater from the receding glacier.

 That belief was challenged, however, when he and his students discovered a year and a half ago that the islands were composed of sand that had come from Lake Michigan – something that should have been impossible with the Valparaiso Moraine standing between the lake and the Kankakee Sand Islands.

“That created a lot of problems with what we had previously believed about ice covering this entire area,” Dr. Janke said. “How could it get over the Valparaiso Moraine and be deposited there?”

Figuring out that puzzle required taking core samples from some of the remaining islands and the development of a new test by one of Dr. Janke’s colleagues to determine when sunlight last shone on the sand.

The answer that came back – the Kankakee Sand Islands were born between 14,500 and 15,000 years ago from Lake Michigan sand – was startling.

“We thought the area was completely covered by ice at that time,” Dr. Janke said. “That was a really earth-shattering result for us.”

Yet it also supports research showing that North American Clovis points – a particular type of arrowhead that represents the oldest manmade object on the continent –identically match arrowheads found in Europe and made by humans at approximately the same time.

And just within the last year, new research has provided strong evidence that a large meteorite struck the ice sheet covering North American and melted much of the ice shortly before the formation of the Kankakee Sand Islands.

“Our research at Valparaiso supports this other recent research because it indicates there wasn’t a massive ice sheet covering North America that would have allowed tribes to cross over from Asia via a Bering Strait land-ice bridge,” Dr. Janke said.

Dr. Janke’s research on the formation of the Kankakee Sand Islands is continuing this summer, with a focus on determining whether the islands closest to Lake Michigan are younger than the southernmost islands.

At one time, approximately 1,200 of the islands stretched out in a series of curved bands north and and south of the Kankakee River that are separated by a few miles and mirror the southern tip of Lake Michigan. Though many were destroyed by human settlement, about 700 still exist today.

Dr. Janke and his students also have been active in the Woodland Savanna Land Conservancy, an organization working to protect the Kankakee Sand Islands.

Scott Osthus, a recent graduate who worked with Dr. Janke to map the Kankakee Sand Islands and support their preservation, enjoyed being involved in the research effort.

“During my four years at Valparaiso, I saw how interesting and significant the Kankakee Sand Islands landscape is,” Osthus said. “I want to see this area preserved because it is so historically significant.”

Landowners have donated a handful of islands to the trust for preservation, and Dr. Janke is hopeful that others will follow their lead and perhaps eventually build enough support for some of the islands to be incorporated into Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore or their own state park.

“The Kankakee Sand Islands are archaeologically significant, with numerous Native American artifacts and burial grounds still present in the surviving islands, and they provide crucial habitat for native wildlife and plant species,” Dr. Janke said. “I’m hopefully the sand islands can be protected so we can continue to learn about and appreciate them.”

Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by Valparaiso University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Comments

Jim Coyle commented on 19-Mar-2014 08:33 AM

An idea if not already considered is that the indiana sands were laid down before the Valpo Moraine. I'am of the opinion that there were 3 impact sites down the length of lake Michigan. This will need research to confirm. But check the outline of the lake and you see 3 rounded indents in the shoreline and in checking the depth charts there are 3 "holes" at the same sites.

Johari Sheared commented on 08-Apr-2014 04:26 PM

I have been tested several years ago and I recently looked at my test results again. DNA consultants was able to find that I have Native American ancestry and also Jewish ancestry. I am an african american women and I have been researching my family tree for a number of years and DNA consultants is very detailed. I checked my african american matches listed and it showed Equitorial Guinea. I looked up the information on this and discovered that it was settled by the Spanish and Portugese. I took the 18 marker test as well and discovered that I have 2 markers for Jewish and one for Native American. I thank DNA consultants for these results. This gives me a good idea where my ancestors came from.


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White People Behaving Badly and Ancient Giants

Thursday, February 06, 2014
By Teresa A. Panther-Yates

What if there once really were giants? We are familiar with tales of giants in fairy tales, like those in Jack and the Bean Stalk, or in tall-tales in movies like Big Fish. Giants are also mentioned in the Bible in several places: ” There were giants in those days” (Genesis 6:4). They have become part of our popular culture. But now that we have grown up, we no longer believe in giants. We no longer believe they could have ever existed, just as we no longer believe in the existence of Cinderella or Santa Claus.

What if we are wrong? According to the author of a new book on the subject of giant humanoids in Earth's past, "We live in an age where we are hypnotized by our own ignorance." The book is titled The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America:  The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up, and the author is Richard J. Dewhurst. It appeared last month from Bear & Company, a Rochester, Vermont publisher.

Spoiler alert:  if you swallow without reflection what the U.S. Government and the American public education system tell you about Native Americans, you won't like this book. You will probably throw it down in disgust and go on Wikipedia to be reassured that giants don't exist. Similarly, if you think it is an act akin to madness to suggest that not only was there a race of  eight-foot-tall people who dominated North America from as early as 20,000 BCE but also they were superior to white Europeans in strength, intelligence, health, diet, family life, government, religion and the arts, stop right here and read no farther. It goes against all right-thinking Darwinists, doesn't it?

The Cherokee called them the Moon People.The Utes and Paiutes spoke of a hideous race of cannibals ten feet tall living in caves. And the Choctaw also have an account of the race of giants that first colonized the Ohio Valley. Ancient oral history predates our modern history textbooks. It was important to relay information down, as in any culture, so it was not always storytelling. Could there have been giants? If so, could they have been Denisovan Hybrids and ancient cousins on our family tree? This is but conjecture. There is no conclusive evidence of the size of the Denisovans since thus far we only have a finger bone, two teeth, and a toe bone ( Anne Gibbons Science Magazine article, ” Genome Brings Ancient Girl to Life.”).

Even if there were giants, we don’t know who they were or the rest of the story. We only have clues. But if they were an ancient human or human cousin at some point there must have been some hot hanky- panky and some bizarre rendezvous as some have suggested ancient humans had with Denisovans, like Ileana Llorens does in her Huffington Post article, “Denisovans Mated with Humans.” If that is the case, some of us might have the ancestry of giants, or as the Cherokee called them, the Moon People.

According to Cherokee and Choctaw traditions and confirmed by excavations of bones in Tennessee, there was a “race of white giants” that once inhabited Tennessee, and “with whom their ancestors fought when they arrived in Mississippi in their migration from the west, doubtless Old Mexico.” Their tradition tells of the Nahullo (a race of giants who were wizards of amazing stature). This was considered to be but a “foolish fable, the creature of a wild imagination” but … “their exhumed bones again prove the truth of the Choctaws’ tradition.” (Donald N. Yates, Old World Roots of the Cherokee, p. 150).

Where did they find bones of the Moon People? Cushman, an Indian historian in his early work, History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokee Indians, (1898), recounts the discovery in 1880 at a burial mound site near Plano, Texas, of human bones “of enormous size . . . the femoral bones being five inches longer than the ordinary length, and the jaw bones . . . so large as to slip over the face of a man with ease.” Cushman goes on to identify them with the older occupants of North America called Allegewi or Taligewi (Talegans). Many historians, moreover, speculate they were the builders of the Adena mounds.

According to Rolling Thunder, a story was told by the Comanches in 1857 about the Moon people:

Innumerable moons ago, there was a race of white men, ten feet high, and far more rich and powerful than any white people now living, who inhabited a large range of country, extending from the rising to the setting sun. Their fortifications crowned the summits of the mountains, protecting their populous cities situated in the intervening valleys. They excelled every other nation which was flourished, either before or since, in all manner of cunning handicraft—were brave and warlike—ruling over the land they had wrested from its ancient possessors with a high and haughty hand. Compared with them the palefaces of the present day were pygmies, in both art and arms. They drove the Indians from their homes, putting them to the sword, and occupying the valleys in which their fathers had dwelt before them since the world began. At length, in the height of their power and glory, when they remembered justice and mercy no more and became proud and lifted up, the Great Spirit descended from above, sweeping them with fire and deluge from the face of the earth. The mounds we [i.e. the speaker Chief Rolling Thunder and his Spanish listener] had seen on the tablelands were the remnants of their fortresses, and the crumbling ruins that surrounded us all that remained of a mighty city. 

Could the words Nahoolo or Nahullo be a reference to these Moon people? The word Nahoolo or Nahullo “is now emphatically applied to the white race and no other . . . The Nahullo were of white complexion, according to Choctaw tradition, and were still an existing people at the time of the advent of the Choctaws to Mississippi,” concludes Cushman (153). And the Indian trader and historian, James Adair, often makes a reference to the Nahoolo or Nahullo in his History of the American Indians (1775).

There are other accounts of giants in this country and elsewhere. Fritz Zimmerman’s book, The Nephilim Chronicles, reproduces over 300 historical accounts of giant skeletons. Many are associated with the earliest mound sites in America, but Zimmerman’s survey of this worldwide phenomenon ranges from the Hunter-Fisher People of northeast Europe and Red Paint People whose movements were circumpolar to the giants of the Bible, noted by the Babylonian Talmud as having double rows of teeth, and “Giants’ Remains in the British Isles.” And Navajo legends speak of the Starnake People, a regal race of white giants endowed with mining technology who dominated the West, enslaved lesser tribes and had strongholds all through the Americas. They were either extinguished or “went back to the heavens.” The name may be a corruption of the Biblical race known as Anakim (Num. 13:33, Deut. 1:28).

The name Og (Hebrew “chief”) appears to be characteristic (see Zimmerman, pp. 188-91). The ogham alphabet is attributed to this cultural founder. Certainly, if these Moon people existed, they did not live peacefully with their neighbors. Many of the mound sites uncovered in the nineteenth century tell a story of constant warfare by incoming Asiatic tribes against the giants occupying the land. One grisly scene showed thousands of skeletons, male, female and young heaped in a mass grave, with warriors’ skulls pierced by arrows. It would appear that as these aboriginal inhabitants of the Ohio Valley were gradually displaced, some members of their society went over into the ranks of the new conquerors, bequeathing a strain of great stature still noticeable, for instance, in the Mobilian chief Tuscaloosa and DeSoto’s Indian queen Cofitachiqui, both of whom were said to be seven feet tall.

When Denisovan Man was first discovered, we had just a fingerbone to go on. We can only imagine the look of the skull. Geneticists conjecture an Austronesian type. Will a geneticist in the future derive ancient DNA from the bones of a giant?  According to reliable investigative sources, there are thousands of full skeletons available at the Smithsonian, Carnegie Instistute and other repositories, who have routinely swept the subject under the carpet for 150 years.

Perhaps at some point, DNA testing companies will have a test to see if you have Moon people in your ancestry. Not yet. But I do have some very tall Tennesseans in my ancestry.

Comments

Charles Stegiel commented on 14-Feb-2014 05:31 PM

The thought I have is that these are not Genus Homo. The second thought I have is that they might be descendants of Meganthropus. Meganthropus has been the target of numerous extreme claims, none of which are supported by recent peer-reviewed authors. Perhaps the most common claim is that Meganthropus was a giant, one unsourced claim put them at 9 feet (2.75 m) tall and 750 to 1000 pounds (340 to 450 kilograms). No exact height has been published in a peer reviewed journal recently, and none give an indication of Meganthropus being substantially larger than H. erectus. However, earlier estimates from the 1940s and 1950's based primarily on the very large Sangiran No. 6 jaw fragment led Prof. Franz Weidenreich, and several other anthropologists to conclude Meganthropus was indeed a giant, and substantially larger than any H. erectus, perhaps on the order of 2 to 4 times the body mass. This fact seems to be born out in Von Koenigswald's and Weidenreich's decision to name the taxon in 1942, "Meganthropus palaeojavanicus" which in Neo-Latin translates to "great or large man of ancient Java." The text is from Wiki.

C A Beverforden commented on 03-Mar-2014 01:33 PM

Since I have heard so much about the giant skeletons, I decided to search historic newspapers. Within a few miles of where I was born in Indiana a 10 foot skeleton was unearthed. My Tennessee inlaws are quite tall also.


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Too Big to Feel

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

We don't often write editorials in this space. Normally, you will see nothing but news in the DNA Consultants Blog. Some sparse marketing messages may appear whenever we have a new product or study. But the FDA's "stop and desist" letter last Friday to personal genomics giant 23&me has sent shock waves through the industry. Although we are not in the business of providing medical information to customers, only ancestral background analyses, we feel compelled to weigh in on the FDA's warning, which we think is overdue.

First, it is important to note that the FDA took action against 23&me because the company has been selling an unapproved diagnostic device and medical service. The FDA demanded 23&me "immediately discontinue marketing the Personal Genome Service" after years of protracted and unsuccessful requests for proof of safety and efficacy to back up the company's marketing claims.

A check of 23&me's website on November 26 showed little change in the promises it makes to consumers. Splashed across the welcome page in large letters was "Get to know you." The site boasted having "Reports on 240+ health conditions." In language that sure sounds medical to us, it speaks of carrier status, health risks and drug response. 

An appeal to parents suggests, "Find out if your children are at risk for inherited conditions, so you can plan for the health of your family." Under "drug response," the company advises that you can take "information on how you might respond to certain medications" from your $99 DNA test to your next doctor's visit.

The FDA found "some of the uses for which Personal Genomic Service is intended are particularly concerning." A false positive result for the BRCA gene, for instance, could cause a patient to remove breasts or ovaries to avoid getting cancer. A false negative could lead patients into an unfounded sense of security and make them ignore that an actual risk exists. An inaccurate result for warfarin drug response could lead a patient to self-manage their dosage or skip it altogether, leading to "illness, injury, or death."

Some pretty dire concerns.

DNA Consultants simply does not do DNA testing for medical information. If a customer calls and asks for such a service we explain that is something they should discuss with their healthcare provider. Neither our marketing nor fulfillment of tests contains any medical language.

We specialize in ancestry analysis exclusively and believe we do that better than anybody else.

Of course, the field of genetic screening has made enormous progress over the past ten years. We monitor many of those advances in our blog. But we do not believe the field is by any means "there" yet, certainly not ready to be packaged and hawked to consumers. We doubt it ever will be. Or at least we hope not.

Despite popular anthems of genetic determinism, your health is not all in your genes. But your ancestry certainly is. Find out what your ancestry is and you will be able to form an idea of what your ancestral medical history might look like, going beyond the two generations of family medical history covered by standard questionnaires at the doctor's office. But that part is entirely up to you and your healthcare providers.

No company is too big to fail. Even the largest are subject to oversight by the government as well as consumer pressure and the natural forces of the market. Nor is any company too big to feel. We hope 23&me will respond both to the FDA and the public with understanding and responsibility, not indifference and arrogance.

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Native Americans Have Deep Ancestry in Europe: Yes, It's Official

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Shocking, Long Overdue Revision to American Indian Genetics

By Donald N. Yates

The ecstatic waters . . .

Through their ancestral patterns dance.

—William Butler Yeats, "News for the Delphic Oracle"

We've been saying it all along but it looks as though geneticists may be forced by new findings in ancient DNA to admit that early Siberian people and present-day Native Americans both have strong roots in Europe, only secondarily in Asia. The nuclear genetic bomb was dropped by Danish geneticist Eske Willerslev at a conference on "First Americans Archeology," held October 16-19, 2013, at Santa Fe, N.M. The city that gave birth to the original atom bomb hosted a glittering roster of speakers in a venue better known for its turquoise jewelry, fry bread and avante garde art, including big draws Achilli, Adovasio, Dillehay, Gonzalez and Schurr.

The paradigm-shifting conference program will be commemorated with a book Paleoamerican Odyssey ($56) to be published by Texas A&M Press later this year.

Leaked reports in the news media focused on Willerslev's paper, "Genetics as a Means for Understanding Early Peopling of the Americas," which concerned the genetic sequencing of two ancient Siberians' bones discovered in the 1920s and now in the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg. Analysis of a bone in one of the arms of a boy found near the village of Mal'ta close to Lake Baikal yielded the oldest complete genome of a modern human sequenced to date.

Of the 24,000 year-old skeleton that was Exhibit A, Willerslev was quoted in The Siberian Times, as saying, "His DNA shows close ties to those of today's Native Americans. Yet he apparently descended not from East Asians, but from people who had lived in Europe or western Asia." He added, "The finding suggests that about a third of the ancestry of today's Native Americans can be traced to 'western Eurasia.'"

The 4-year-old boy, who died 24,000 years ago in a homeland previously assumed to account for all the Indians who crossed a theoretical Bering land-bridge and founded the First Americans, had a male Y-chromosomal haplogroup of R1b, the most common lineage in modern Europe, and a female mitochondrial lineage of U, the dominant prototype in pre-historic Europe. As it happens, I am the same combination, R1b for male and U for female, as are innumerable others in our in-house study on Cherokee DNA, published, lo, some five years ago.

Whereas previous "peopling of the Americas" stuff has clung to and recycled haplogroup studies (sex-lines), the new shock research relies on autosomal DNA, total genomic contributions from all ancestral lines, not just male-only, not just female-only descent. The title of a blog from Eurogenes rightly emphasizes this:  "Surprising aDNA [autosomal] results from Paleolithic Siberia (including Y DNA R)."  

When we introduced the 18-Marker Ethnic Panel as an enhancement for our main autosomal product, DNA Fingerprint Plus, lo, again, these five years now and counting, we presented a map of prehistoric human migrations showing without any equivocation that "Native Americans," even as Cavalli-Sforza demonstrated two decades ago, were closer in genetic distance to Europeans than Asians. In fact, we claimed, on the basis of autosomal DNA, that having Native American I or Native American II was a result discrete and separate from East Asian, since Native Americans obtained frequencies of its occurrence as high as 80% and Asians were on the polar opposite of the scale, at the bottom for carrying it. Other methods frequently confused Native American and East Asian to the point of invalidity, particularly those products claiming to arrive at racial or ethnic percentages.

The moral is that autosomal DNA trumps Y chromosome and mitochondrial evidence, and only ancient autosomal DNA can truly explain modern DNA. Even one of the most antipathetic students of American Indian DNA, Theodore G. Schurr, seems to rethinking the rigid definitions that have built careers and won tenure for geneticists and anthropologists for decades. For the fanatics who have been toeing the party line on haplogroup Q, as set down by Schurr's company, Family Tree DNA, and its followers, we note the following statement of recantation or at least qualification, taken from the Santa Fe program:

"Tracing Human Movements across Siberia and into the Americas: New

Insights from Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Data."

In this paper, I present genetic data from native Siberian and indigenous

populations of North America that help to address questions

about the process and timing of the peopling of the Americas. These

new genetic data indicate that Eskimoan- and Athapaskan-speaking

populations are genetically distinct from one another, as well as each

to Amerindian groups, and that the formation of these circumarctic

populations was the result of two population expansions that occurred

after the initial expansion of settlement of the Americas. Our high-resolution

analysis of Y chromosome haplogroup Q has also reshaped the

organization of this lineage, making connections between New World

and Old World populations more apparent and demonstrating that

southern Altaians and Native Americans share a recent common ancestor.

The data also make clear that Y-chromosomal diversity among the

first Native Americans was greater than previously recognized. Overall,

these results greatly enhance our understanding of the peopling of

Siberia and the Americas from both mtDNA and Y-chromosome

perspectives.

"Genetic genealogy" has become a fashionable buzzword, but to my knowledge few research studies or blogs and hardly any commercial tests authentically combine the two concepts. According to genealogy, I myself am about one-quarter Choctaw-Cherokee and three-quarters European. But genetics says my mitochondrial line (U2e) is Eurasian, even though I have traced it to a Cherokee woman who married the Indian trader Enoch Jordan about 1790 in north Georgia.  Estimates from other "genetic genealogy" companies for my Native American ancestry, and I've taken them all, range from 0% (23&me) to 8% (Family Tree DNA, AncestryByDNA). 

DNA Consultants, the company I founded in 2003, does not give percentages of ancestry by policy, but half my top matches in our autosomal analysis are Native American, and North Asian/Siberian is No. 1 in my megapopulation result, followed by Central Asian and Native American (and only distantly by Northern European). On an autosomal approach, if not haplogroup basis, my genes are Native American, which is how I self-identify. If I were to be pulled over for being a brown person in the state of Arizona, where I currently reside, and Sheriff Joe ran my DNA profile numbers through the system he would find that I am 15 times more likely to be North Asian than Northern European, and twice as likely to be American Indian than East Asian, European American or Iberian American (Hispanic).

Read the whole analysis of my personal genetics, with actual reports from various companies, in the Cherokee Results pages on the DNA Consultants website. You may also find an extended study showing what autosomal DNA can do at:

Reconstructing Your Ancestry and Parentage (blog post, March 14, 2012)

If and when geneticists get serious about identifying the European sources of the American Indian gene pool, and hopefully they will round up not just one suspect (Denmark?), I would like for those who get paid and promoted to study us to please consider the following points:

—First New Cherokee Data Published in More Than Ten Years (announcement, August 1, 2012) - in-house study described numerous instances of U, findings published in Donald Yates' Old World Roots of the Cherokee.

—Stephen C. Jett, who taught geography at The Ohio State University 1963-1964 and then at the University of California, Davis, serving thrice as Geography chair and becoming emeritus in 2000, current editor of Pre-Columbiana, has frequently pointed out that just because Native American haplogroups match Siberian haplogroups doesn't mean the population of either Native America or Siberia was the same in remote history as today. He considered this a big fallacy of Big Science.

—Constantine Rafinesque, whose History of the American Indians was the first and most comprehensive treatment of the subject, believed all the early settlers of the Americas came "through the Atlantic," and only beginning about 1000 BCE did the Iztacans and Oguzians (Central Asian Turkic peoples) arrive. See our blog:  American Indian and Turkic People Share Deep Ancestry (June 6, 2012).

—Canadian environmentalist Farley Mowat, the author of thirty-seven books, has constantly challenged the conventional knowledge that Vikings were the first Europeans to reach North America. In The Farfarers he describes the Alban people of Old Europe as visitors and colonists from the time when walrus hunters discovered the sea routes to the West before the Bronze Age. America's original name of the White (or Beautiful) Land is mentioned by Rafinesque and in Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Arabic, Algonquian Indian, Irish, Norse and Chinese accounts.  See "An Interview with Farley Mowat" on YouTube.

—Cyclone Covey of Wake Forest University, among other historians, has noted that Clovis Culture appears fully formed without any antecedents in America, with the most perfect examples of Clovis points traced in a cline of occurence in archeological sites to the Atlantic Coast.

—The earliest Americans clearly practiced the same Mother Goddess religion elaborately documented in the east Mediterranean and Old Europe by Marija Gimbutas. Their ideas of matriarchy or gylany (in Riana Eisler's coinage) did not come from Asia. See Archeologist of the Goddess (webpage) and "Syncretism, Not Animism" (PPT), a presentation given at the Sandy, Utah conference, March 29, 2011.

—When customers of DNA Consultants with various degrees of Native American admixture have their European population matches analyzed, a frequent top result is Finland or Finno-Ugric or Uralic. This "false match" could be explained by shared ancestry between the present-day Finns (where U is the modal haplogroup) and ancestors of Native Americans coming from Europe. Consider taking the EURO DNA test ($99).

—John L. Sorenson and Carl L. Johannessen in World Trade and Biological Exchanges before 1492 (2009) document several plants that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere (not Asia) and traveled early by human hand to the Americas. For instance, Cannabis sativa (marijuana) moved from Western Asia or Europe to Peru by 100 CE, and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) was brought to Mexico from across the Atlantic Ocean by 1500 BCE. Both grow in profusion in Europe and temperate parts of Central Asia. Goosefoot (an important Ohio Valley Moundbuilder staple), cotton, coconuts, bananas, turmeric and North American myrtle likely took the same route. In the opposite direction, Mexican agave spread to the Mediterranean world by 300 BCE.

Archeologists described the recent news from Santa Fe as jaw-dropping. We expect that when the definitive report on the Siberian boy's 24,000 year-old genome appears in the journal Nature, where it is at press, their hair may fall out. At any rate, the European origins of Indians is going to be a game changer not only in genetics, but anthropology, archeology, government and, perhaps most significantly, in the self-awareness of millions of Americans who count Native Americans among their ancestors.

 
























Our standard world migration map had the story right years ago.


Comments

Don Danielson commented on 30-Oct-2013 05:36 PM

I can add no data, only my applause. There are, truly, more similarities among people than differences.

James Stritzel commented on 11-Nov-2013 03:03 PM

CONGRATULATIONS!! For vindication of what you and DNA Consultants have been in the forefront of for years. Still will be fierce resistance but the light of your leadership is starting to shine and grow in the ‘Official Establishment’.

I remember and still have a book from the early 1990’s “Giving Voice to Bear” by David Rockwell. In it he wrote of the similarity of how Bear is depicted/revered/hunted around the sub-Arctic. Briefly wrote about a circumpolar subarctic culture. That has stuck with me 20+ years.

Here with Eske Willerley’s “….genetic bombshell….” is validation of what must have been pre-Columbian peopling of Americas other than the orthodox version.

Thanks so much for your dedication, determination and achievements in the DNA Field.

Jim Stritzel

Anonymous commented on 14-Nov-2013 09:18 PM

I have a lot of Siberian DNA as well as a lot of Greek and Iranian DNA, but come from Black Sea area/Georgia. But look European. MtDNA is H1b. Mom's dad's Y chromo is R1b. We were supposed to have come from the Caucasus in ancestral times. Lots of redheads in the family. Curious.

Bill Hucks commented on 20-Nov-2013 05:15 PM

This is one of many articles I've read on the Siberian boy. You mention that his Ydna is R1b, however it is not mentioned in any other articles. I'm very curious to know if R1b has indeed, been confirmed. --That was reported in the full version of the scientific paper.


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Autosomal Testing Revalidated

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Autosomal Ancestry Tests: More Confirmation of Their Stability

By Teresa Panther-Yates

How fast does the molecular clock tick? Americans, especially, like most everything fast. We don’t think too much about the word slow. But two scientists have changed our minds about that. As often happens in science, two research teams independently reached the same groundbreaking results. The breakthrough in the present case concerns the mutation rate of DNA and has profound implications for human evolution as well as for autosomal DNA ancestry analysis.

What is the DNA mutation rate? This is the rate at which a genetic marker mutates or changes over time. James X Sun et al in the recent article in Nature Genetics, “A Direct Characterization of Human Mutation Based on Microsatellites,” and A. Kong et al in the recent article, “Rate of de novo Mutations and the Importance of Father’s Age to Disease Risk,” in Nature both made an important, recent discovery. The speed of mutation in DNA is slower and more stable than previously thought. They discovered this how? By the magic of math.

How can math help us discover our ancestry? DNA is stable. Because it is so stable, we can calculate our way all the way back to when we swung in the trees and threw guavas at gorillas. (Even early man was in the trees longer than previously thought according to Charles Choi in his recent article in Science, “Early Human ‘Lucy’ Swung from the Trees.”) And these calculations lead us to the stories of our ancestors.

What does this mean concerning autosomal DNA ancestry tests? They have even more scientific validity. Second-generation DNA ancestry testing is based on these very genetic markers, and that is confirmation that the alleles on your DNA that are examined using a statistical basis have been relatively unchanged for the past 20,000 years. That’s about twice the length of what we call world history, hence a meaningful enough time frame for valid inferences about population patterns and ancestry of individuals.

These common and not-so-common markers that everyone has are behind the method making it possible for anyone to take an autosomal ancestry test. Autosomal or non-sex-linked markers change at a much slower rate than the Y chromosome, for instance, which seems to be highly changeable, depending on the father’s age (Kong 201). The Y chromosome is a marker only males have. It is used for other types of tests: male, haplotype, sex-linked DNA tests. Only males can take these tests, and it only provides information about that one male line.

Who knows what our DNA has yet to tell us? Or what DNA tests there will be in the future. This is an exciting new field. But what you can know now with a true and thorough autosomal DNA test is more than most realize is possible. The DNA Fingerprint Test is a simple test anyone can take that gives you a comprehensive snapshot of your cumulative ancestry.

Above:  Sample laboratory readout of a DNA profile or fingerprint.

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Back to Africa

Friday, September 06, 2013

Africa’s Circulatory Migration Route

By Teresa A. Panther-Yates

While it is probably true that we all came out of Africa some 200,000 years ago, some of these first ancestors of ours also returned before Europeans were Europeans. The migration path went both ways. This is a resounding discovery. Erika Chek Hayden in her recent Nature article, “African Genes Tracked Back” says this “reversal” or two-step migration meant that these ancestors reimported “…genes from the rest of the world [which] were carried back to southern Africa, long before European colonizers arrived.”

The findings come from a flurry of research made possible by better tools for surveying African genomes. They suggest that scientists previously underestimated the rich diversity of African genetics. Hayden quotes Luca Pagani, a geneticist at the Wellcome trust Saenger Institute near Cambridge, U.K who says, “Until now, we have been applying tools designed specifically for non-African people to African people.” Hayden also quotes Carina Schelbusch a geneticist at Uppsala University in Sweden, as saying, “It’s a really exciting time for African genetics.”

The new research also explains a mystery. It means that some African groups previously thought to be genetically isolated actually “…carry 1-5% of non- African DNA” according to population geneticists at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Mass., who examined the individual genetic variations of some 1,000 individuals (Hayden). This picture of admixture explains why some Africans carry non-African genes. In fact, some carry a lot of them.

For instance, the male Y-DNA haplotype R1 b1 which is the most common haplotype among Western Europeans is also found among some Africans. Miguel Gonzalez et al in his 2012 article, “The Genetic Landscape of Equatorial Guinea,” in the European Journal of Human Genetics says that the human Y- DNA chromosomes R1b1 though “very common in Europe are usually a rare occurrence in Africa,” but there have been some “…recently published studies that have reported high frequencies of this haplogroup” in parts of Africa. One wondered why until now. Hayden isn’t the first to propose the idea of an ancient journey out of Africa and then back again. There have been genetic clues before this. Gonzalez extrapolates from his R1b1 data “that this represents a ‘back-to-Africa’ migration during prehistoric times.” And Hammer et al in the article, “Out of Africa and Back In,” in the Oxford Journal of Evolution postulates that there was more than one African migration path.

Now that we have determined the migratory paths were more multifaceted than previously thought, what else can we extrapolate from this? Could people have (gasp!) also had boats and ships earlier than we allow them in our myopic hegemony of ideas? Certainly, discontinuous gene flow by sea could explain pockets of genetics that otherwise do not fit with the standard view of a welter of footsore people aimlessly trooping around the world and solely driven by survival.

Naw. We predict such an explanation will only be dismissed with ridicule. Human evolution has no motives according to the experts. It is completely random and unplanned. It obeys only the rules we make up for it.

Comments

Raymond commented on 16-Nov-2013 08:33 AM

It is interesting how much discussion occurs regarding "back migration" and a lack of discussion regarding the "Arab Slave Trade" which brough millions of Europeans to N. Africa as slaves and concubines. (Collusion?) Also, there were many Greek, Roman, Circassian, and other Mamlukes (arabic for slave) in N. Africa that contributed to the genetic make-up. Their descendants at still found in Berber tribes such as the Kabyle, Rif, etc. Some of these same groups even ruled Egypt for some time, erecting statues of themselves that are mistaken for ancient Egyptian artwork.

Most are familiar with the Zanj (African slaves) but are unfamiliar with the rest of those same documents mentioning the "European" women that were slaves in the harems. This provides a better explanation of European mtDNA in N. Africa than "back migration" from thousands of years ago. Unfortunately, we are only considering works from people during a time of immense racial predujice as valid references leading to useless debates, conjecture, and falsification of history.

DNA doesn't lie. People's rendering of history only confuses the DNA results. For example, how is it that Native American DNA is found in Africa and Europe? Could it be that Native Americans were taken as slaves to those places, or taken there centuries later in military campaigns? Are Native Americans descended from East Indians who migrated over a "land bridge" (NA's deny this) or did some East Indians intermarry with them when they were brought over as slaves in the 1600's (documented) or came with the Hessian Army (self admissions by the same in the 1800's; documented) and married into some of the tribes? DNA only proves the relation, not the "how" they are related.


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Where Do I Come From: Donald Yates

Monday, July 29, 2013

Where Do I Come From

Real People's DNA Stories 


Sizemore Indians and British Jews

By Donald N. Yates

As soon as EURO DNA was released last month I quickly studied my new list of European nationalities where I have significant ancestral lines according to DNA Consultants' new autosomal population analysis. I had come to know and accept, of course, the usual suspects, compiled from the 24 populations available from ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes). But the new list represented 71 populations and far surpassed ENFSI or any other database in commercial use. It had, for instance, the first European comparisons for countries like Hungary, Lithuania, Malta and Iceland. So how would my familiar matches—Scotland, Ireland, England, Belgium and the rest—shake out in the new oracle?

Some of the top matches—above British Isles or Northern European ancestry—were Central European. Here were the top 20:

Rank European Population Matches
1 Slovakia – Saris (n=848)
2 Finland (n = 469)
3 Slovakia – Zemplin (n=558)
4 Netherlands  (n = 231)
5 Slovakia – Spis (n=296)
6 Romanian - Transylvanian - Szekler (n = 257)
7 Romanian - Transylvanian - Csango (n = 220)
8 Scotland/Dundee (n = 228)
9 Switzerland (n = 200)
10 England/Wales (n = 437)
11 Ireland (n = 300)
12 Italy (n =103)
13 Denmark  (n = 156)
14 Romanian (n=243)
15 Swedish (n = 311)
16 Serbian - Serbia / Vojvodina / Montenegro (n = 100)
17 Icelandic (n=151)
18 Estonia (n = 150)
19 Romanian - Transylvania/Banat (n = 219)
20 Norwegian (n=1000)

Slovakia? Romania? To be sure, I had always had a fascination with both countries. In my salad days I studied in Europe and traveled to Bratislava, where I fell in love at first sight with the chiseled blonde visage of a friend of my university classmate. And I had also been to Romania in the days of its Communist regime, when my long-haired travel companion and I were welcomed like long lost relatives or conquering pop heroes. 

Admittedly, the results of an autosomal ancestry test are cumulative and combinatory. While they do reflect all your ancestry, as no other test can, you are cautioned not to use the matches to try to pinpoint lines in your family genealogy. There is always a temptation to over-interpret. 

My European admixture results from AncestryByDNA had yielded a confirmatory result:  20% Southeast Europe. That struck me at the time as odd. Yet Hungarian was now one of my top metapopulation results, too. (Remember, Hungarian data did not figure into ENFSI because Hungary is not in the European Union.)

The Scottish (my grandmother was a McDonald) made sense, as did all the other matches from what I knew through years of paper genealogy research. But I was unaware of any strong Central European lines.

Sizemore Research:  Pitfalls of Genetic Genealogy
Then I recalled the Sizemores. My great-great-grandmother was a Sizemore, and they were multiply connected with my Coopers, my mother's maiden name. Could the Central European effect in my EURO result be from the Sizemores?

Much ink—or at least many keystrokes—has been expended on the Sizemore controversy. There are pitched battles on genealogy forums and edit wars in cyberspace. One armed camp has them down as Melungeons and admixed Cherokees with crypto-Jewish strains. Another holds it as an article of faith that the Sizemores were a lily-white old Virginia British family and the surname comes from something like Sigismund (think Goetterdaemmerung). Y chromosome DNA shows ambiguous conclusions:  you can visit the advertisement page sponsored by Family Tree DNA. 

Alan Lerwick, a Salt Lake City genealogist, upset the apple cart some years ago by linking America's Sizemores to Michael Sismore, buried in the Flemish cemetery of the Collegiate Church of St Katherine by the Tower in London in 1684. That was the same parish as my Coopers lived in. Then and now, it is the most Jewish section of London.

Sizemore is not a British surname before the sixteenth century. It was clear to me long ago that neither my Sizemores nor my Coopers were Mama Bear, Papa Bear families. Spurred by my EURO DNA test results, I dug into my subscription at Ancestry.com and learned that Michael Sismore was recorded as being born as Michael Seasmer in Ashwell, an important village in north Hertfordshire, November 1, 1620. His parents were Edward Seasmer and Betterissa (a form of Beatrice). New information! Alert the list moderators and surname project guardians!

Seasmer is undoubtedly the same as Zizmer, an old Central European Jewish surname adduced in multiple families in Israel, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Austria, Russia, Moldavia and the United States. Edward and Michael are favored first-names in the U.S. branches. The Hebrew letters, which can be viewed on numerous burials in Israel, are  (in reverse order, right to left) RMZZ. Cooper is a similar Jewish surname, common in Russia and Lithuania and Israel as well as the British Isles and the U.S. In fact, my father's surname, Yates, is a Hebrew anagram common in the same countries, meaning "Righteous Convert."

Hertfordshire was an important center for British Jewry, mentioned in the works of Hyamson, Jacobs and others (see map above). A good hypothesis to explain the transformation of Michael's name from Seasmer to Sismore and thence to Sizemore is this. His grandfather, a Zizmer, came to England in the time of Elizabeth, perhaps via the Low Lands, possibly as a soldier or cloth merchant. This could account for Michael Sizemore's burial in the Flemish cemetery of St Katharine's by the Tower, usually reserved for foreigners. It also explains the predilection in descendants for such names as Ephraim, Michael, Edward, William, John, Richard, James, George, Hiram, Isaac, Samuel, Solomon and Henry. And why girls were named Lillie, Lydia, Louisa, Naomi, Pharaba, Rebecca, Sarah and Vitula. The last name (also found in my wife's grandmother's name) was a Jewish amulet name. It meant "old woman" in Latin and was given to a child to augur a long life. 

Zismer took the form of Cismar, Cismarik, Zhesmer, Zizmor, Ziesmer, Zausmer, Cismaru and Tzismaro—all amply attested in the records of European Jewry, including Jewish Gen's Holocaust Database, with the records of over two million victims and survivors of the Nazi genocide of World War II. I am proud of my Jewish heritage through my great-grandmother and through my half-blood Cherokee Indian mother Bessie Cooper Yates. 

Thank you for indulging me in this genealogical excursion into a family mystery. Like the restaurateur, I would be to blame if I didn't eat in my own establishment. I can confidently say that DNA Consultants' new EURO DNA is a smorgasbord of genetic delights for those jaded by the old-fashioned sex-linked testing. I thank our R&D team, in particular Professor Wendell Paulson, our head statistics consultant, along with all those who helped vet its amazing power, and I encourage you to try it today!














Comments

Zoltan commented on 13-Sep-2013 03:48 PM

About Seizmore. If it really relates to Zizmer, Cismar etc. then it is a pure Hungarian surename: Csizmár, with the meaning of boot maker (Csizma=boot from the old turkish word of cizme)
Please note that the refferred areas of Slovakia and Transylvania are former Hungarian territories, so the connection is clear and matches with your DNA.

I do not know when you wrote the article but Hungary is in the EU since 2005.

I hope I could help.


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Where Do I Come From: Shawn

Monday, July 22, 2013

Where Do I Come from:  Shawn

Real People's DNA Stories

Ethnicity Beyond European Migration

By Shawn

My journey into DNA testing began with my desire to expand on my known heritage, while clarifying debated Jewish ancestry.  What I have found in return is that my ancestral paper trail only uncovers a small portion of the blood that runs through my veins.  My DNA Consultants results, for the most part were quite surprising.  My European matches were fairly consistent with my country origins on paper and surrounding areas.  The major surprise, however, was that my number one European match was Romani/Gypsy and my number 10 match was Czech Republic.... 

Things became much more interesting with my World Population Matches.  My scores (in order) were Romani/Gypsy, Middle Eastern, African, Iberian, Central European, African-American, Jewish, Mediterranean European, European American and Eastern European.  I also came up with Native American admixture to top it off.  These results are causing me to believe that there may be a line or more of family lineages that I have yet to tap into. 

Looking back on things now, I have received comments from others concerning my phenotype such as "I'm not sure what you are,” "You don't look Irish" and "You must have some Black ancestry."  Some have even just assumed I was Hispanic or Caucasian.  Interestingly enough, almost all acknowledge that they see my Italian/Spanish phenotype, while a few also see slight Native American.   

While my results provided insight into how diverse my blood really is, they also put an end to an age-old family debate as to our Jewish ethnicity.  One of my relatives from a few generations past would passionately defend her position that our family line was indeed Jewish, while another family member would vigorously put forth his position that we were not Jewish.  He would try to prove our non-Jewishness any time he could.  I also had another family member along that same family line say that he almost did not get hired for a job because the hirer thought he was Jewish.  I always believed these accounts, especially since as young as I can remember I have found this side of my family (Italian and German) to phenotypically look Italian and/or Jewish.  

So where does all this leave me now?  My results show my blood is much more than simply Italian, French, Irish and German.  They confirm family testimony of Spanish/Portuguese/Iberian and Jewish ancestry.  Perhaps more interestingly, my results leave me re-assessing my ethnicity or multi-ethnic heritage, end years of family verbal passages or debates and leave me with intriguing new ancestries that are waiting to be discovered. 

Comments

Maria OConnor commented on 23-Jul-2013 12:42 AM

Shawn: Countries frontiers are artificial. For example, there are people of celtic heritage in northern Spain, northern Portugal, all over Ireland, all over England, all over Scotland, all over Wales, Southern Germany, northern France, Northern Italy, etc. All of them, even considering the come from different places have the same celtic DNA. So, if you have an ancestor from Spain or Portugal, could be of celtic origen, or mediterranean origen.
If a person has jewish sefardi dna, it could be originated from Southern Spain, Southern Portugal, North Africa, Middle East, etc.
Also, in South America there are great numbers of people of European ancestry, including non hispanic non portugue ancestry, like Irish, German, Italians, etc.
Is quite complicated, due to ancient and new migrations.


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Khazarian Hypothesis of European Jewish Origins Vindicated

Friday, March 22, 2013

New Genetic Study Shows Rhineland Hypothesis False, 'Thirteenth Tribe' Theory Correct After All

In "Heretical History" and numerous other posts, we have argued that the contributions, genetic and cultural, of the Turkic-Iranic Khazars deserve much more attention than the cosseted theories of European Zionist Jews and the official views of the state of Israel on Jewish history. A new study by Eran Elhaik titled "The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypothesis," (Genome Biol. Evol. 5.1:61-74) bears out our thinking with hard evidence that seems likely to settle that rancorously-fought-over question once and for all. 

According to Science Daily (Jan. 16, 2013), "Despite being one of the most genetically analysed groups, the origin of European Jews has remained obscure . . . but the new study . . . sets to rest previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry." Elhaik's findings strongly support the Khazarian Hypothesis, as opposed to the Rhineland Hypothesis, of European Jewish origins. 

Ashkenazi ("Germanic") Jews embraced a Western European origin myth not only because it presented Jews as very white, at the top of the race pyramid, but because of the prestige it brought them of being a spin off of the Roman Empire. 

The Khazarian thesis acknowledges that the most important element is Middle Eastern among "brown" peoples, and that the period of efflorescence of Judaism in Europe began in the late Middle Ages under the influence of migrating Khazars. 

That's an entirely different version of history, one much closer to Arthur Koestler's "Thirteenth Tribe" account, a theory for which he was castigated by fellow Jews and especially Zionists. 

The new study was not possible until recently, when many of the gaps in Caucasian and Jewish genetics were filled for the first time, using autosomal approaches rather than sex-linked haplotype surveys. Elhaik's masterwork examines a comprehensive dataset of 1,287 unrelated individuals in 8 Jewish and 74 non-Jewish populations genotyped over a range of half a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or markers. These data were adapted from a study by Doron Behar and colleagues from three years ago.

The central role of Khazaria was also not wanted or wished for among Eurocentric scholars, who tended to denigrate Ostjuden or Eastern Jews. Few historians conceded even the fact that Khazaria was a Jewish state that lasted nearly a millennium, where Hebrew was spoken, preferring to think of it as a sort of travelers tale or land of religious fiction.  

Elhaik used seven measures of ancestry, relatedness, admixture, allele sharing distances, geographical origins and migration patterns to identify the Caucasus-Near Eastern and European ancestral signatures in European Jews' genome along with a smaller, but substantial Middle Eastern genome. "The results were consistent in depicting a Caucasus ancestry for all European Jews," according to Science Daily

Heresy in a Nutshell

Elhaik wrote:  "The most parsimonious explanation for our findings is that Eastern European Jews are of Judeo-Khazarian ancestry forged over many centuries in the Caucasus. Jewish presence in the Caucasus and later Khazaria [a Hebrew-speaking Central Asian empire] was recorded as early as the late centuries BCE and reinforced due to the increase in trade along the Silk Road, the decline of Judah (1st-7th centuries), and the rise of Christianity and Islam. Greco-Roman and Mesopotamian Jews gravitating toward Khazaria were also common in the early centuries and their migrations were intensified following the Khazars' conversion to Judaism… The religious conversion of the Khazars encompassed most of the Empire's citizens and subordinate tribes and lasted for the next 400 years until the invasion of the Mongols. At the final collapse of their empire in the 13th century, many of the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe and later migrated to Central Europe and admixed with the neighbouring populations."

According to Science Daily, Elhaik's findings explain otherwise conflicting results describing high heterogeneity among Jewish communities and relatedness to Middle Eastern, Southern European, and Caucasus populations not accounted for under the Rhineland Hypothesis. Although the study links European Jews to the Khazars, there are still questions to be answered. How substantial is the Iranian ancestry in modern day Jews (Khazars were themselves mixed)? Since Eastern European Jews arrived from the Caucasus, where did Central and Western European Jews come from, those usually called Sephardic?

Finally, if there was no mass migration out of Palestine at the 7th century, what happened to the ancient Judeans? --Shlomo Sand, the author of The Invention of the Jewish People, has maintained that there never were any expulsions or exoduses out of Palestine, only wholesale conversions to Islam. Thus, the true heirs of Judah are the persistent inhabitants who still occupy Jerusalem and the Holy Land, that is, Palestinians. 

It is ironic, to say the least, that these ancient Judeans are dispossessed by a nationalist colonial power with roots no deeper than nineteenth century Europe which exercises a force majeur based on mistaken notions of genetics and history. 

Photo above:  Arthur Koestler, the arch-heretic and persona non grata in the eyes of Jewish authorities, was unorthodox politically, religiously and sexually. 


Comments

Lee commented on 06-Jun-2013 09:23 PM

Your comments re: Rhineland vs Khazar theories are confused and wrong. Rhineland theory asserts that Jews origin is found in Palestine, firmly in the Middle East, not Europe. In fact, this belief is the basis for Jews returning to Palestine to claim what they see as their true ancestral land. This, of course, was critical in touching off the ongoing conflict in Palestine. The Kharzar theory posits that Jews are mostly descended from Turkic peoples, those who occupied the Caucus Mountain range. These people would be much closer to what you refer to as the "top of the race pyramid" because they would be far whiter than the "brown people" of Palestine aka the Middle East. So, you have your theories arse-backwards, if you will.

Hezakiah Levinson commented on 21-Nov-2013 06:59 PM

Hogwash. Archaeology shows Jews in Europe over three hundred years before the Khazarian Monarchy even converted.The Köln Synagogue in Cologne, Germany has been excavated 2007/2012 and dates clearly pre Carolingian (bef. 780/90). There is at the moment some strong evidence that it dates back to the early 4th century when emperor Constantine in 321 issued a privilege for the Cologne Jews. This has been confirmed recently by the find of a rainwater mikveh of the 4th century inside the building complex). The oldest synagogue in Western Europe uncovered in an archaeological dig to date is the Ostia Synagogue in the ancient Roman port of Ostia, in Italy. The present building, of which partial walls and pillars set upright by archaeologists remain, dates from the 4th century. However, excavation revealed that it is on the site of an earlier synagogue dating from the middle of the 1st century CE, that is, from before the destruction of the Temple.The Main Synagogue of Barcelona, built in the 3rd or 4th century, has been described as the oldest synagogue in Europe.


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