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Do You Know Your European Origins?

Thursday, July 02, 2015

Do You Know Your European Origins by Country?

Review of European DNA Testing

By Donald N. Yates

Most people who buy a DNA test want to know what countries in Europe their ancestors came from. But the favored approaches of major companies like 23andMe have so far not yielded entirely satisfactory results, at least to judge from consumer feedback. This review article explores the reasons for this failing and proposes that DNA Consultants’ EURO DNA database based on forensic population data may be a more accurate measure of nationalities in our background than complicated and expensive microarray genotyping.

Since the beginnings until 1960, over 50 million immigrants settled in what is now the U.S., most of them from Europe. Before 1881, about 86% of the total arrived from northwest Europe, principally England, Wales, ScotlandIreland, Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia. Under the New Immigration that followed between 1894 and 1914 immigrants from southern, central and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the total. Many of those were Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Romanian and Galician Jews.

Despite their strong European roots, most Americans know little about what nationalities contributed to their family tree. Many families single out one country of origin and ignore others. In the 2013 American Community SurveyGerman Americans (14.6%), Irish Americans (10.5%), English Americans(7.7%) and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States, forming 38.2% of the total population.

And then there are those who report just being “American." Often of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish and/or Welsh ancestry that they cannot trace, given its predominance in the upper South (such as Kentucky and Tennessee), they amounted to nearly 10% in the 2010 Census, with this trend growing rapidly. Also, according to a Wikipedia article, two-thirds of white Americans have two or more different European nationalities, often four or more, and many "American" respondents may be cases where the person does not think any one ancestry is dominant enough to identify with.

 

Present-day European countries and major cities (Wikivoyage). Russia east to the Urals and five-percent of Turkey’s landmass fall in Europe. The broadly linguistic regions were similar as early as the sixteenth century and have been reaffirmed by DNA studies: British Isles (lilac), Scandinavia (blue-green), Russia (blue), Baltic (light green), Central Europe (green), Balkans (light blue), Greece and Turkey (purple), Caucasus (violet), Italy (orange), Low Countries (yellow), France (brown) and Iberia (rose).

An important article published last year by geneticists at Harvard and 23andMe drew back the veil on Americans’ European ancestry. It was titled “The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States” and appeared in the prestigious American Journal of Human Genetics. The authors found a higher degree of genetic mixing among all groups than previously suspected. “This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry,” according to the authors Katarzyna Bryc et al.

According to the 23andMe study, African Americans had about one-quarter European genes (Y chromosome studies had put the figure as high as 30%), and some had significant amounts of American Indian ancestry (Oklahoma blacks led the country). Latinos carry an average of 18% Native American ancestry, 65% European ancestry (mostly from the Iberian Peninsula) and 6% African ancestry (compared to 3.5% for European Americans).  

Such fine-scale genetic analysis was made possible by affordable microchip technology involving more than 800,000 SNPs tracked longitudinally through cohort groups. But the analysis did not distinguish between different European ancestries, certainly not on a country-specific scale, and 23andMe’s European results—just as much as Ancestry.com’s or those of other companies using the “genetic strand” approach—have not exactly received a conqueror’s welcome in the ancestry market.

Chronology of European DNA Tests
Foundational to emerging European DNA studies was a 2008 article by Oscar Lao of the Department of Forensic Medicine in Rotterdam and co-authors: “Correlation between Genetic and Geographic Structure in Europe.” Current Biology 18/16:  1241-48. This study found that valid and meaningful genetic populations in Europe were defined by linguistic boundaries, which were largely in turn coincidental with modern national borders. This thesis makes sense:  people throughout history have usually married someone nearby who spoke the same language. The work of the late Martin Lucas of DNA Tribes underscored this bedrock population structure, at least on a regional basis, if not a country-specific one.  A burst of studies over the past five years have begun to paint in the genetic histories of various countries, such as England, Ireland and Belgium. Most of these ask for participants with four grandparents of the same local ancestry.

Previous European analyses had been content to match your Y chromosome or mitochondrial type to countries of origin reported by customers. The advantages of autosomal DNA are apparent if one considers that sex-linked tests target only two of your lines (your father’s male line and mother’s female line), whereas if you go back even five generations you have 16 male ancestors and 16 female ancestors (your 3rd great-grandparents). According to uniparental schemes of ancestry I should be 100% English. The diversity and surprising variety come in only if you dig beneath the surface and sift back through the generations.

It is suspected that the results even of “autosomal” (non-sex-linked) testing have not been entirely rid of skewed results and sample biases. The fact that samples often come from medical studies and the purpose of genetic research is largely aimed at medical studies, not ancestry, introduces an unavoidable bias, not to mention the suspicious preponderance of countries like England, German and the U.S. to the detriment of the nations of Eastern and Southern Europe. What about a truly autosomal method that completely ignores the gender of the tested person?  What about a database of European countries that is equal, comprehensive and unequivocal? What about a method that compares you only to Europeans, not European Americans? In short, what about a good European DNA test plain and simple that gives genealogy enthusiasts what they want?

Just such a product is available for under a hundred dollars with the EURO DNA Ancestry Test from DNA Consultants. It forms part of the company’s atDNA autosomal ancestry database, now in version 7.0, released in late June (N = 9,983). Since 2009, we have worked with Professor Wendell Paulson at Arizona State University, Mathematics Department, to develop a 10-loci STR frequency database for European countries/populations, forming part of our DNA Fingerprint Test. The 10-loci are: D81179, D21S11, D3S1358, THO1, D16S539, D21338, D19S433, VWA, D18S51 and FGA. On this basis, we have incorporated data for the following 39 populations from publications or online sources:

 

Albania/Kosovo (n = 136)

Austria (n = 222)

Belarus (n = 176)

Belgian - Flemish (n = 231)

Belgium  (n = 206)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171)

Croatia (n = 200)

Czech Republic (n = 200)

Denmark (n = 200)

England/Wales (n = 437)

Estonia (n = 150)

Finland (n = 230)

France (n = 208)

France – North (Lille) (n = 200)

France – South (Toulouse) (n = 335)

Germany (n = 662)

Greece (n = 208)

Hungary (n = 224)

Ireland (n = 304)

Italy (n = 209) (Replaced Italy n = 103)

Lithuania (n = 300)

Macedonia (n = 100)

Montenegro (n = 200)

Netherlands (n = 231)

Northern Ireland (n = 207)

Norway (n = 202)

Poland (n = 206)

Portugal (n = 150)

Romania (n = 243)

Russia (n = 184)

Scotland - Highlands (Dundee) (n = 228)

Scotland – Lowlands (Glasgow) (n = 494)

Serbia (n = 100)

Slovakia (n = 247)

Slovenia (n = 207)

Spain (n = 449)

Sweden (n = 424)

Switzerland (n = 402)

Turkey (n = 500)

This covers all European countries of significance in genealogy with the exception of the Ukraine and Latvia. The former appears in the World Matches part of reports, and while we are unaware of strictly Latvian data commensurate with the European standard, the neighboring countries of Estonia and Lithuania are represented in our current list. Minor countries like Iceland and Malta are not included, though data were available for them. The 39-country basis replaces the earlier 22-country basis limited to ENFSI (mostly European Union members) and goes beyond the partially updated Strbase 2.0.

How good is the EURO DNA Test? One customer, Jonah Womack, wrote to us in 2012: 

I just wanted to compliment everyone at DNA consultants. My father had always said our ancestors were from Czechloslovakia, and I was curious enough to put it to the test. Within one week of mailing my sample, I had the answers I was looking for. I was so happy to share the news with my father; the top 3 matches were all from eastern Slovakia. That objective evidence led to him sharing family stories I would have likely never known. All I can say is thank you, and this was money well spent.

With the new version of atDNA 7.0, I naturally raced to input my own DNA profile and check my EURO results. An early analysis with ENFSI (available online since 2004) gave me the following Top Ten results:

I

Finland

II

England/Wales

III

Scotland/Dundee

IV

Netherlands

V

Switzerland

VI

Ireland

VII

Sweden

VIII

Scotland/Glasgow

IX

Denmark

X

Estonia


The mystery of Finland and Estonia may be explained by the large Native American admixture in my genes:  recent research has suggested that Finno-Ugric peoples and Native Americans share a wide degree of deep ancestry in the so-called “ghost populations” of Stone Age northeast Europe or Ancient North Eurasians (ANE).[1]

But I was unaware of any Swiss, Swedish or Danish ancestors and felt dissatisfied with the list.

After improvements and additions, my new EURO results look like this:

I

Scotland - Highlands (n = 228)

II

England/Wales (n = 437)

III

Netherlands  (n = 231)

IV

Finland (n = 230)

V

Estonia (n = 150)

VI

Belgium - Flemish (n = 231)

VII

Scotland - Lowlands (n = 494)

VIII

Romania (n=243)

IX

Northern Ireland (n = 207)

X

Portugal (n = 150)


The listing continues with Italy, Czech Republic and Germany. The median falls between #30 France and # 31 Denmark. This “most on a par with each other with a few extreme outliers” picture seems to suggest that my European origins are a lot more diverse than the Top Ten would indicate. The countries below average frequency were Denmark (n = 200), Croatia (n = 200), Russia (n = 184), Belgium (n = 206), Belarus (n = 176), Austria (n = 222), Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171), Macedonia (n = 100), Lithuania (n = 300). On the face of it, I was less likely to have ancestry in any of these countries, and sure enough, I was not aware of any from my genealogical research. Statistically, I am ten times more likely to have Scottish, English or Dutch ancestry than Macedonian, Bosnian/Herzegovinian or Lithuanian.

DNA Analysis Checked by Surname
I next wanted to see how the top countries tallied with a surname count. Both parents had English surnames (Cooper and Yates), and this seemed to be reflected in the prominent position of England/Wales, while a Scottish grandmother (McDonald) and Dutch grandmother (Goble) seemed to justify Highlands Scotland and the Netherlands. We have already explained Finland. But what about the other countries?

Looking at the surname origins of my thirty-two 3rd-great-grandparents, I obtained the following statistics:

34% Scottish (Mitchell, McDonald, Johnson, Kitchens, Mason, Forester, Pickard, Proctor, Lackey)

25% English/Welsh (Barnes, Yates, Thomas, Goodson, Kimbrell, Cooper, Blevins, Wooten)

13% Dutch (Hooten, Goble, Shankles)

9% Irish (Ellard, Denney)

6% German (Graben, Redwine)

6% Portuguese/Jewish (Storer, Bondurant)

3% Hungarian (Sizemore)

An effective 3% percent, my 3rd-great grandmother Yates, who was a Creek Indian, had no surname. So that accounts for all strains and fits well with the new EURO results. The top three ancestries both in terms of autosomal DNA frequency and my Ahnentafel were Highlands Scottish, English/Welsh and Dutch. These were the most familiar ethnic origins mentioned in family stories and traditions.

Autosomal Population Analysis versus Genetic Strands
Let us compare these EURO results to 23andMe’s tabulation, expressed as percentages instead of a country breakdown ranked by likelihood. First of all, 23andMe has me as 99.2% European, with only 0.4% East Asian and Native American, in contradiction to the 8-25% Native American found in other tests from companies employing a percentage score. Of the 99.2% European, 46.7% is British and Irish—in agreement with my highest-ranked countries according to atDNA (nos. 1 and 7 Scotland, 2 England/Wales, and 9 and 16 Northern Ireland and Ireland).  40.1% is “broadly Northern European. Minor amounts are “broadly Southern European” (0.3%) and “broadly European” (2.8%), while <0.1% is “unassigned.” Of the Northern European, there is 5.3% French and German and 4.0% Scandinavian.

There is an air of scientific certitude about 23andMe’s EURO analysis. The listing of ancestry composition appears comprehensive and exhaustive. It adds up. But it is important to point out that the categories are regional, not country-specific. The only countries mentioned are France and Germany, which are not distinguished but lumped together—a choice that would create consternation in most Frenchmen and Germans. There are obvious flaws and limitations in their data and its interpretation.

One limitation is the special inclusion of “Ashkenazi” (of which I am said to have 0.0%) without a mention of “Sephardic,” historically the more numerous branch of Judaism. The DNA Fingerprint has discrete data for four Jewish populations in the World Populations (Israeli Sephardim, Hungarian Ashkenazi Jews, Chuetas, Majorca), as well as four ethnic markers, one of which is strong in Ashkenazi Jews and the other in Sephardic Jews.

The 23andMe approach could be called the omnium-and-gatherum method, with numerous blind spots. It is not, strictly speaking, evenly valid or consistent. It leaves a good deal lacking in reliability, too. Throughout history, Jews have converted or hidden their ancestry. We cannot expect them to come pouring out in the 21st century to self-identify for DNA surveys even if they retain knowledge of their Jewish past. Yes, perhaps some Ashkenazi Jews will sign up for the program and so identify, but one wonders about a medical motive and bias.

Unsurprisingly, Ancestry.com produced similar results for me—99% European, 0% Native American, with 61% coming from “Great Britain,” 15% Ireland and 0% “European Jewish” (equivalent to 23andMe’s Ashkenazi apparently). Presumably, Ireland comprehends only the country by that name, Northern Ireland being a part of Great Britain, although I have no knowledge of that much Irish in my family tree and Ireland ranks only 16th in my DNA Consultants results. Both Ancestry and 23andMe use high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) from Illumina, involving as many as 800,000 SNPs.

The Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip platform is also used in Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder autosomal DNA testing service (which I have not taken). A good description of the microarray process for genotyping technology can be found on a page at 23andMe, with a link to further information on the Illumina website.

In sum, next-generation genotyping technology seems to be accurate enough in assessing the broad picture of your European ancestry, but it is incapable of giving you a country breakdown. Only DNA Consultants’ EURO test, part of its DNA Fingerprint Plus ($279) and available separately for as little as $99, can list and rank the countries of Europe where your ancestors likely originated. It does this not on the basis of genome-wide assessment of hundreds of thousands of SNPs but by comparing your DNA profile to the scores of 10,000 Europeans identified according to 37 actual country names, from Albania to Turkey.

My EURO results matched amazingly well with what I knew from extensive genealogy research about my European forebears, beginning with all the English and Scottish lines right down to minor lines from Portugal and Hungary. With its “false Finnish” match it also indirectly confirmed the Native American ancestry that was evident in abundance in my world matches. Now if I could only find the elusive Romanians (no. 8) in my tree . . . .



[1] Lazaridis, I. et al., “Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for the Present-day Europeans." Nature 513/7518{2014):409-13 (known as the Reich article after David Reich of the Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School); A. Seguin-Orlando et al., “Genomic Structure in Europeans Dating Back at Least 36,200 years,” Science 346/6213 (2014):1113-1118 (known as the Willerslev study after Eske Willerslev of Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen).

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Bigger Question Mark Looms Over Origin of American Indians

Saturday, November 29, 2014

In an article in this week's Science magazine (246/6213:1113-18), the origin of American Indians is linked to that of archaic Europeans rather than Asians. The title of the article is "Genomic Structure in Europeans Dating Back at Least 36,200 Years," and the lead author is Andaine Sequin-Orlando, with Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen as the corresponding author. The team sequenced the DNA from one of the oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans from Europe and found "that Kostenki 14 (the name of the fossil) shares a close ancestry with the 24,000-year-old Mal'ta boy from central Siberia, European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, some contemporary western Siberians, and many Europeans, but not eastern Asians."

"Our findings," the authors went on to say, "reveal the timing of divergence of western Eurasians and East Asians to be more than 36,200 years ago and that European genomic structure today dates back to the Upper Paleolithic and derives from a metapopulation that at times stretched from Europe to Central Asia."

The study also showed that the the Kostenki and Mal'ta genomes contained more Neanderthal DNA than modern Europeans and shared roots with the Middle Eastern population that would much later become European Neolithic farmers.

It would seem that the simplistic "Peopling of the Americas" theory taught in American schools has encountered a surprising death blow from Russia.


Native Americans Have Deep Ancestry in Europe: Yes, It's Official (blog post)

Ancient DNA shows earliest European genomes weathered the ice age, and shines new light on Neanderthal interbreeding and a mystery human lineage   (research news from University of Cambridge)




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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part Four

Friday, October 10, 2014

Part Four is the conclusion to our series of reports on the "anomalous Cherokees." Depicted left is author Donald Yates in Rome.

Read the full paper
More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee


J, a Major Jewish Haplogroup

Haplogroup J, termed Jasmine in the scheme of Oxford Ancestors, is believed to have originated in the Old Near East and to have moved north and west into Europe, especially after the spread of agriculture beginning 5000-3000 BCE. It is found throughout Europe with particularly high concentrations around the eastern Baltic Sea and Russia, as well as in Bedouins and Yemeni, where it reaches frequencies of 25% or higher. J is a major Jewish female lineage (Thomas 2002), being a strong maternal contributor to Jewish, Arab, Greek and Italian populations. J is also the apparent carrier of congenital longevity and a host of “Jewish” diseases that are just beginning to be understood by medical science.

There were 6 J's in Phase II (nos. 3, 8, 32, 35, 41 and 63, composing 9%), 4 in Phase I and 17 in the CBC data, making for an aggregate of 10.7%, somewhat less than the level for the Middle East and Europe (12%).

There were multiple matches between participants. An example is James Richard Stritzel (8), whose form of J1b1 matched No. 63  on HVS1 with several mismatches on HVS2. Stritzel's grandmother, Eunice Mable, was adopted out of the Mohawk tribe and given the last name Ahern abt. 1900. His rare haplotype is similar to five J's reported in Phase I. Of these, Nadine Rosebush's type is not matched anywhere in the world. In other words, these J types seem to be specific to the micro-population in which they are found today and are not widespread. One might make an argument of inferred ancestry as follows, although other interpretations are also possible. The germ line and enclosing population may have originated in classical antiquity. Instances survived to the present in North America only because they were part of the discrete and continuous existence of a "people." This "people" had spread intact by discontinuous, long-distance migration from its point of origin, where in the course of centuries its presence became extinct.

Rarest of the Rare:  I, N, V and W

Turning now to the four haplogroups that first cropped up in Phase II, we have one or two individuals each with I (54 Swinney, 48 Francisco), N (2 Kellam), V (39 Ponder) and W (30 Carpenter, 31 Sponenburgh). Percentages, phylogeny and phylogeographic patterns are probably not meaningful. Let us note, however, that one of the I's (54) had no matches anywhere, while the other (48) matched Dicie Gray, born 1828 in North Carolina. For haplogroup N, the sole example Norma Kellam (no. 2, N1A) traces her mitochondrial line to Roanoke, Virginia. She had several unique SNPs and matched only a handful of other people. In medieval times, N gave birth to one of the four major Ashkenazi Jewish founder lineages, probably in the Rhine Basin.




Fig. 14. James Stritzel (8) was told by previous labs that in “no way” could his DNA be Native American. His mother’s line, however, was confirmed as Cherokee (or Mohawk) despite being an unusual type. Here the Manchester, Wash. resident carves a Deer Pipe after spending part of last summer training under a sixth-generation Lakota Nation Pipe Maker. 

Fig. 15. Norma Kellam (2) of Westminster, Calif. has maternal line ancestry in Virginia and matched only five Mitosearch users, two of whom also traced to Virginia. The other three pointed to Tennessee, Mississippi and unknown origins. Her maternal grandmother was Daisy Brooks (b. 1894, m. Cronk) and great-grandmother, Nancy Ann Tingery (m. John Sellars Brooks).

African L Haplotypes

Surprisingly, there were 6 L haplotypes in Phase II (9.0%). In Phase I, there were 3 (5.8%), and the CBC data include 7 (5.2%), bringing the total across all datasets to 16, or 6.3%. The most common haplogroup was L3, the oldest African lineage, associated with and most common today in East Africa. If the African DNA were the simple effect of gene flow into the Cherokee from historical-era slaves and freemen, one would expect West African centered L2 to dominate the results, as this is far and away the most prevalent type carried by African Americans (as much as 50%). L3, on the other hand, is characterized by a relatively greater presence in circum-Mediterranean and European populations. According to one authority, "L3 is more related to Eurasian haplogroups than to the most divergent African clusters L1 and L2" (Maca-Meyer et al. 2001). Sub-Saharan African L lineages account for 10% of the population in Saudi Arabia, and L3 occupies a prominent position (72% of them; Abu-Amero et al. 2008). It has also been observed in Slavic or East European populations, especially among Ukrainian Jews, possibly vestigial admixture from ancient slaves in the Roman Empire and Islam. L3 accounts for only one-third of L lineages within Africa.

We will highlight three L3's. Shelia Maria Wilson (52), who lives in New Mexico, has 20 mutations on mitochondrial control regions 1 and 2, the highest number we have ever studied. Generally, the more mutations, the more ancient the type. There was, however, not even a remote match in databases, making hers a unique type reported only in North America. Wilson knows her genealogy only as far back as her great-grandmother, Mrs. Julia Adams. The surname came from the Georgia slave master of her father Harry Adams. Harry, who called himself "Mali blasta," was kidnapped in Mali as a pre-teen shortly before the Civil War. Shelia's mother Willie Mae Adams, born in 1927, remembered seeing the whelps on her grandfather's back where he was whipped. "I had been informed by some relatives," writes Wilson, "that my great-grandmother was at least part Native American and White."  Another L3 (47, Lovancia Francisco) matched a historical Native woman, A Te Anu, Muscogee.

 

Fig. 16. Willie Mae Adams was born June 2, 1904 in Butler County, Ga. She was the youngest girl of seven children. Her mother was a mix of black, Caucasian and Native American.

Fig. 17. Shelia Maria Wilson (participant 52) carries an old and rare form of L3 that apparently left no descendants except for her and her family.

 

Gregory Damon Haynes (no. 16) has another unique and otherwise unreported L3 haplotype, with a SNP found in no other person (16163G). His father had a rare American Indian Q haplotype with relatives on two Indian census rolls. His maternal grandmother was Lily Marie Benjamin (Blythe), born October 15, 1922 in North Carolina. Could his maternal line have been Cherokee? The question remains open, as it is extremely difficult to investigate the lines of ex-slaves.

 

Fig. 10. Haplogroup Distribution versus Europe and Other Populations, Based on Richards et al. 2000.

Hg

N=

%

Europe

Egypt

Middle

East

Eastern

Med.

T

27

23.1

8.4

23.4

11.9

6.0

U

23

19.7

22.2

7.8

26.3

16.4

H

15

12.0

53.5

14.0

36.8

47.9

J

11

9.4

9.5

6.3

11.4

12.7

L

9

7.7

15.6

K

6

5.1

5.8

3.1

6.2

3.6

I

2

1.5

4.7

N

1

0.8

6.3

Total

n=117

~80%

n=1021

n=64

n=2736

n=165

Conclusions

If we are to accept our sample as valid for its purposes, several salient parameters of the study population labeled "Anomalous Cherokees" seem to leap out from the table of haplogroup frequency comparisons (Fig. 10).

1) The first striking feature is the high amount of T lineages evident in Cherokee descendants. T is the leading haplogroup (23.1%), with a frequency on a par with modern-day Egyptians (23.4%) and Arabs (24.4%). That is elevated by a factor of 4 over the East Mediterranean levels, three times that of Europe and the United States and twice that of the Middle East. T is thus a defining mark of Cherokee ancestry. Where did it come from? We can safely rule out recent European admixture.  As we have discussed again and again, there was no available source for a huge, sudden influx of female-mediated Middle Eastern DNA on the American frontier.  Even Sephardic Jews (11-14%), many of whom were also Indian traders, could hardly have accounted for such admixture. Moreover, had it occurred in the colonial period or more recently the diversity, age and unique characteristics of the T haplotypes would not have yielded the patterns noticed in this paper. Most T's would have matched people in the Old World and we would simply be looking at an effect of migration. Instead, we have a North American branch of T with peculiar SNPs which is evidently a cross-section of a very old population originating in the Old World. The thesis of Donald Yates' study of Cherokee history is that an expedition of Ptolemaic Egyptians and others in the 3rd century BCE served as the nucleus of settlers that became the Eshelokee (Cherokee). If this historical model is correct, there was a severe bottleneck of DNA accompanying the establishment of the Cherokee, with many founder effects—something suggested by the frequent cross-matches, high degree of interrelatedness and clustering of types in our data.

2) The second glaring figure is the relatively low amount of H (12%), which is the leading haplogroup in Europeans (~50%). If the admixture were attributable to European women in the colonial period we would expect it to be much higher.  

3) The third observation we can make is the similarity of haplogroups strongly associated with Jews (J, K at 14.5%) to European levels (15.3%). At whatever time period admixture occurred, whether in ancient or modern times, Jewish women likely formed part of it.  Men cannot pass mitochondrial DNA. Like other contributions to the gene pool, J and K came from a feeder population or sub-population that had families on board. In other words, JK haplotypes could not have been the result of shipwrecked Portuguese sailors, Arab or Jewish merchants, soldiers or any of the other suspects often trotted forth. Judging also from the uniqueness of JK types and their diversity, we are looking at a Jewish signal deeply embedded in the structure of Cherokee populations.

4) L haplogroup frequency (7.7%) is about half that of Egypt (15.6%). East African-centered L3 predominates, not West and Central African-oriented L1 and L2 haplogroups, which are twice as abundant, and which define the majority of slaves and their descendants in the New World. We are unsure how to read this. It may be that in the nature of things, African American lines were under-sampled. Federal regulations and the controversy embroiling the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma in their on-again-off-again rejection of freedmen as citizens might have served as a disincentive to blacks' testing their DNA. Blacks are also hampered in tracing genealogies, unlike whites or Hispanics, or indeed Native Americans. 

Certainly, however, our data suggests there has always been a constant African component in Cherokee DNA, one that resembles North and East African populations rather than West and Central Africans. Beginning around the start of the Common Era, the Bantu expansion swamped all Africa with L1 and L2 genes. A high proportion of L3 could mean that admixture with the Cherokee predates that event. We have records of Phoenician colonization efforts as massive as the "30,000  desert-dwelling Moors from the hinterland of Carthage" in about 500 BCE (Yates 2012, p. 32). Mining operations then and now used a large number of women slaves, who were prized for their agility in negotiating small openings as well as their becoming inured to cruel conditions (this is still the norm in Egypt, India and Bolivia, though the workers are no longer legally considered slaves; see Del Mar 1902). The clan that specifically included black-skinned people among the Cherokee was called the Blue Paint or Panther (Ani-Sahoni; see Panther-Yates 2013, pp. 30-31). It was related to the original (Red) Paint Clan, named for the Paint People, or Phoenicians (Ani-Wodi).

5) Finally, we might remark on the minor (I, N, V, W), unknown (I 33, 36, 37, 40; II 33) and missing haplogroups (G, HV, pre-HV, M and other Asian types).  I, N, V and W are minimally adduced in Egyptian, Palestinian, Arab and Turkish populations.  They round out our picture of the original genetic inputs to the Cherokee, showing that the source of "admixture" was deep seated and diverse. The Cherokee population structure seems to be rather an effect of long-distance travel and conquest than of gradually developing encroachment, migration or genetic drift.     

Admixture, just like the word "anomalous," is a relative term. Its use depends on one's perspective. Geneticists, as we have seen, tend to privilege a rather narrow body of recent U.S. and European scientific literature. It is time to de-colonize the human past and open our eyes to the diversity of American Indian peoples. The personal genealogies of over one hundred Cherokee descendants contradict popular and professional received wisdom about Indian nations.

 

Addendum:  Begging the Question

For science to be separated from pseudoscience, its findings must obey the rule of falsifiability. This term has often been misunderstood, but what it means according to philosophers of science is that empirical statements such as "All swans are white" must be "such that to verify them and to falsify them must both be logically possible" (Popper 2005). Otherwise, as Wolfgang Pauli famously remarked, an argument "is not only not right, it is not even wrong."

In plain language, we could say that so far from barking up the wrong tree, that dog don't hunt.

"All swans are white" is a falsifiable statement. It can be tested by observation and shown to be generally true (though false in cases of black swans). But such statements as "All American Indians descend from haplogroups A-D and sometimes X" is not falsifiable. Neither this generalization nor its converse is testable in any experiential way. No amount of corollaries, exceptions to the rule or qualification will fix it.

"A woman of haplogroup A (or B, or X, or T, or W) founded a Cherokee matriline," on the other hand, is falsifiable. It is scientifically true in certain individual cases and datasets, as claimed in the present study ("experiment"), just as it is scientifically false in other instances.

Much of the surmises of science about the peopling of the Americas can be said to be on the wrong track. It can neither be proved true nor decided false that ancestors of American Indians crossed a hypothetical Bering land bridge at some time in the unknown past. Let us hope that the growing demand for truth from amateur roots-seekers and test takers will force professionals to predicate their research agendas and phrase their findings more carefully in the future. If they do not, they will be failing the public trust. There is also a need for science reporters and writers to frame their stories more responsibly. We have always said, "There are Indians and Indians."

References

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Richards, Martin and Vincent Macaulay (2000). “The Mitochondrial Gene Tree Comes of Age.” American Journal of Human Genetics 68:1315-20.

Roth, Wendy D. (2012). Race Migrations. Latinos and the Cultural Transformation of Race. Stanford:  Stanford UP.

Schurr, Theodore G. (2000). “Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World,” American Scientist 88:246-53.

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Swaminathan, Nikhil (2014). "America, in the Beginning." Archaeology 67/5:22-29.

Sykes, Brian (2001). The Seven Daughters of Eve. The Science that Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry. New York: Norton.

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Van Oven, Mannis and Manfred Kayser (2008)."Updated Comprehensive Phylogenetic Tree of Global Human Mitochondrial DNA Variation." Human Mutation 30(2): E386-E394. 

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Project data available upon request from dpy@dnaconsultants.com.

Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee (Phase I)


  

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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part Three

Thursday, October 09, 2014

We continue the series of reports on Phase II of our Cherokee DNA Project with case histories for the various haplogroups in the study. 

Read the full paper
More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee

Case Histories:  Where There's Smoke

Non-anomalous Types A-D and X

Of the eleven cases of classic Native American haplotypes, none knew beforehand they had an "approved" type. None belonged to a Federal tribe or lived on on a reservation, although two (Michael Joseph Little Bear, Sr., participant 17, A, and Tino De la Luz Thundereagle, participant 10, D) had Native American names. The majority joined the project just like the others to confirm genealogical rumors or traditions of having an Indian ancestor somewhere in the family tree (usually a distant unknown grandmother). Their primary motive for testing, in other words, was to find the truth, not to qualify for tribal enrollment or benefits. Many came from Latino or Hispanic backgrounds. Among American Hispanic people, at least, Indian ancestry or identifying as indio has historically not been seen as a socially desirable family trait, though a nationwide trend in recent years has witnessed Hispanics using "American Indian" to identify themselves on census forms (Roth 2012; Decker 2011).  

The results of the test, according to Jesse Montes, a third generation American (20, C, photo above), were both surprising and galvanizing. "I always had a gut feeling that I was Native American, and it was such a relief to find out I have a strong line of it from my mother. I am usually a very quiet person, but I am so excited about this that I want to be recognized. This is me!" His mitochondrial type had five unique SNPs and fully matched four Puerto Rican matrilines, and no other type in the world. His mother's maternal grandmother was born in the southern part of Puerto Rico near Ponce. Family traditions mentioned Taino in both his mother's and father's lines. "I am hoping to now be able to connect with some of my ancestors online on my mom's side to discover even more from the Native American DNA test," said Montes. "It has given me a golden key." (See interview by Teresa Panther-Yates, September 23, 2014, on DNA Consultants Blog, "Jesse Montes:  Where Do I Come From.")

Leroy James (25, D) had a rare mitochondrial type that matched the descent of just three people worldwide (HVR1 only), Kitty Prince of Bear River Athabaskans (Mattole), an anonymous Caucasian American (Twygdam 69) and an unknown line in Mitosearch (7MP7K). Katherine Frances-Prince was the wife of James Prince of the Mattole and a member of the Bear River Band of Rohnerville Rancheria located south of Eureka, in Loleta, California.

Fig. 3. Kitty Prince in 1921. Native American Indian - Old Photos Facebook Page (public domain photos). Kitty Prince's DNA (haplotype D) matched that of participant 25.

Fig. 4. Nancy Ward Statue. See Yates (2012) 107. Nancy Ward's DNA matched that of Patricia Gurule of Denver, Colorado. © D. Ray Smith. Used with permission.

Patricia Gurule (66) was a walk-in client at Denver DNA Center, an affiliate of DNA Consultants. She knew "absolutely nothing" about her heritage before taking an autosomal ancestry test from us and then joining the Cherokee DNA project. Her type of C matched, among several New Mexican , Sonora, Zacateca and Chihuahua lines, the DNA of Nancy Ward, the Cherokee Beloved Woman and Tribal Mother (ca. 1738–1822 or 1824; Mitosearch record 8U6AP and CBC 115669, Allene Gay Kearney; see Yates [2012], Chapter 8, pp. 106-117 on Ward). It also matched Gayl A. Gibson Wilson, an enrolled member of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and participant in our pilot project, Southern U.S. Native American DNA. Wilson, who is Wolf Clan, has traced her descent to Sarah Consene, a daughter of Dragging Canoe, born about 1800 in the Cherokee Nation East (see Yates [2012] 48-49, 158). This is evidently an ancient and widespread haplotype in Mexico and the United States, linked in Cherokee genealogies with the Wolf Clan, the traditional clan of war chiefs and most prevalent affiliation of Cherokees since the nineteenth century (Panther-Yates [2013] 4-10). In "Nancy Ward DNA" we have a clear example of exact correspondence between genetic matriline and a historically documented, genealogically proven, tribally specific clan. 

Haplogroup H: Thorn in the Side of Theory

Before our studies, haplogroup H had been reported in small frequencies in surveys of the Cherokee but routinely explained as post-Columbian European admixture (Schurr 2000). As noted in "Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages" (2009), it is the quintessential European haplogroup, responsible for about 40% of European populations today (Sykes 2001). If our sample reflected non-native women settling among the Cherokee and not the genetic trace of pre-Columbian founder types, one would expect the H to dominate the scene. Instead, we found H in only 16% of the samples in Phase II and 8% in Phase I. In the CBC data, on the other hand, it occupied the top position with 40%—exactly as we would expect from a cross-section of European Americans.

There were 11 subjects with H in Phase II. These were about equally divided between haplotypes that were unmatched or rare, judged to be possibly ancient Native American on the strength of the matches (5), and haplotypes of very probable recent European origin, several of them in fact corresponding to the CRS (6). All of the latter failed to submit convincing genealogies linking their form of H with descent from a Native American woman. The former (9, 11, 12, 27, 33), on the other hand, invariably had unique, unmatched SNPs (Fig. 1) combined with compelling genealogies. For instance, Joel Kenneth Harris, Sr. (11) had several unique mutations, including the rare 16319A, also occurring in haplogroups D, A and J*. Add these 5 to 3 similar cases of H from Phase I and the true percentage of likely Native American H matrilines project-wide appears to be 6.7%.

James Eric Walker (9) was one of the strong cases. He started family research only in 2010. Born in North Carolina, the 57-year-old, 6-foot-five-inch-tall Walker lives in Mobile, Alabama. "There was a lot of so-called dark stories, as in my Jewish-Cherokee Walker and James lines," he said. "So my inner drive sent me into the world of paper trail ancestry . . . I found so much sadness with my mother's side, but the stories were true . . . DNA did in fact put my mother's line to bed." In autosomal testing he matched a Native American forensic population labeled Brazilian Belem Amazonians (n=325). His documented and published family tree verifies direct descent from Nancy Beacham, born about 1845 in Virginia, the wife of an emigrant born 1837 in Russia (both died in Mobile).

Mary England (12) had the reference series on sector 1 but a rare mutation in sector 2 that caused her to match only four users in Mitosearch, all of whom reported unknown origins for the type. She traces her maternal line securely to Sally Bingham, born 1833 in Knox County, Kentucky (and tentatively beyond). An intertwined line in her family tree goes back to Hatchet Grey Letty Durham, a reported full blood Cherokee, born in Wilkes County, Georgia, who died September 1, 1843 in Floyd County, Kentucky. Another Cherokee line she has assiduously traced zigzags back to Aaron Brock (Chief Red Bird, born 1727, died February 10, 1787, Clay County, Kentucky.

Fig. 5. Great-grandmother Beulah David Cane was born March 16, 1878, the daughter of Nancy Beacham, born about 1845 in Virginia.

Fig. 6. Grandmother Beulah Alexandra deFleron (married name Soderquist) was born November 7, 1905 in Mobile, Alabama.

Fig. 7. Participant 9, James Eric Walker, has H ancestry that may be Native American. His grandmother and great-grandmother were known as Seminole-Cherokee.

A third H is Sharon Rebecca Chatterton (nee Toms). Her unique configuration of mutations brings up no one in the Cambridge Mitochondrial Concordance and produces only a very few exact matches in Mitosearch, all from North America (4U6K5, GECV7, Y9UQC). One of her maternal ancestors was a Frazier.

Fig. 8. Grandmother Peramelia Vaughn was born September 22, 1901, in Coffee County, Tennessee. After marriage she went by Amelia Vaughn Street. She died October 7, 1987 in San Pablo, Calif.

Fig. 9. 68-year-old Sharon R. Chatterton, participant 27, of Lady Lake, Florida, is an H who traces the line to 3rd-great-grandmother Lucinda Gilley, born 1801 in Franklin Co., Ga. Lucinda's mother was named Dorcas. She married Zachariah Bush in Rutherford Co., Tenn.

The earliest female ancestor's identity in all these cases support the phenomenon I have described elsewhere of an Indian trader, typically Jewish or crypto-Jewish, marrying the daughter of a Cherokee chief or headman (Yates 2012:46ff.). The mitochondrial evidence tells us that H was part of the pre-contact Cherokee population. H did not enter the Native American haplogroup array with a colonial English woman marrying an Indian ("admixture"). While it is fashionable, and even politically ordained, to dismiss the Cherokee grandmother "myth," which can be traced to a single, suspect source in the literature, and which grew legs on the Internet so that it now seems unassailable, the uncomfortable truth seems to be that a goodly number of families who do not deserve to be called "Indian wannabes" have a bona-fide Cherokee matriarch corresponding approximately to that description in their family tree (Martin 1996).

T Haplotype Diversity and Sephardic Motifs

Our initial report remarked on the high incidence of haplotype T and compared its frequency to that of Egypt (25%). Phase II produced T's amounting to 19.4% of haplogroups in the sample, bringing its overall presence project-wide (n=119) to 24.4%, exactly the same number to three decimal points reported in Iraqi and Iranian Jews (n=217, see Bedford, Table 4). Compare the high level in Cherokee descendants and Egypt together with Misrahi Jews to the much lower frequencies of T in Northwest Spain (6.9%), Portugal (9.2), Ashkenazi Jews (4.8), Sephardic Jews (11-14%), Great Britain and Ireland (9.1), North Central Italy (13.7), Western Saudi Arabia (12.5), Mitosearch (mostly U.S., 9.1) and National Geographic (8.7), and the T-intensive populations can be seen surpass all the others by a factor of 2 to 5. On the basis of this comparison, we can safely call the T in aggregate among the anomalous Cherokees Middle Eastern in scale and importance.    

In 2012, attention focused on T5, renamed T2e, and Felice Bedford of the University of Arizona published her article, "Sephardic Signature in Haplogroup T Mitochondrial DNA" (2012). "It was found that the rare motif [in subhaplotype T2e] belonged only to Sephardic descendents (Turkey, Bulgaria), to inhabitants of North American regions known for secret Spanish–Jewish colonization, or were consistent with Sephardic ancestry [sic]," Bedford wrote of the new Sephardic signature, T2e5. She dated the founder of the signature back to "one woman from Iberia who lived between 500 and likely 2000 years ago." So were there any instances of the new Sephardic signature, defined by mutations 16114T and 16192T, in our anomalous Cherokees? No, unsurprisingly, since Bedford found only 12 in an exhaustive search of world databases, but there were two cases of the parent sub-subhaplotype T2e, defined by mutations 16153A and 150T. They are Cheryl Green (Phase I participant 34) and Evie Nagy (Phase II participant 22). And as Bedford reminds us, "Suspicion of a signature in a minority ethnic group can be initiated with as little as a haplotype match in two unrelated individuals from that group." 

The sheer diversity of T types in Cherokee descendants, just like their high ratio, would seem to point to a source in the Middle East, not Europe. Although the phylogeny of T subclades and nomenclature is still somewhat unsettled (Pike et al. 2010), the prevalence and absence of subhaplogroups across different studies show strong similarities between the Cherokee sample and Iraqi and Irani Jews. Thus, T2b, which occurs at an almost non-existent level in Iraq, and reaches a high of 4.2% in Great Britain, is completely lacking in the Cherokee sample. T2e (6.9%) has a relatively high presence, as in the Ottoman Sephardim, Western Saudi Arabia and Italy. T1 (5.8%) is about the same as in Iraqi and Irani Jews (5.1%). Finally, there is a large amount, one-third of T subclades, categorized as T*. Their prevalence could be read as a sign of the antiquity of the Cherokee sample, with many T types which are common in the source population, but which have died out, not survived or have escaped being studied in standard contemporary genetic surveys. This inference is strengthened by the numerous unmatched T mutations, although a caveat should be added that the branches and sub-branches of T, as already noted, have not been completely dissected. Some of the T* haplotypes may be falsely assigned or need re-assigning.

Apropos of matching population contours, let it be noted here that many of the T's in Phase II volunteered information that they are Jewish by faith and/or descent.

Tara in the New World

Kathleen Rogalla of Panama City, Fla. (49) joined the project in July 2010, after learning family secrets from her 92-year-old mother (Fig. 11) and receiving "disappointing" results from other companies. Of one, she wrote, " My test results came in a few days ago and I was shocked and dismayed by the results. They have me as 100% European with no chance of being Native at all. That also means that there is little chance of being matched with others who have Native blood." Subsequent testing revealed "a trace" of Asian ancestry. Her maternal line traces to Elizabeth Hensley of Stafford County, Va. But her genealogy on file with the project also identifies Deborah Cook(e), wife of William Chisholm (born 1720 in Amelia County, Va.) as a remote ancestor. Amy or Annie, no last name, was Deborah's mother. Both Deborah and her husband were associated with the Cherokee in historical documents. Rogalla descends from their daughter Sarah, who married Thomas Tinsley. Another daughter, Margaret, married her first cousin John Chisholm, and their daughter, Annie, married John Walling of the well-known long hunter family in Tennessee. A son of William and Deborah Chisholm, John D., was a friend and advisor to Doublehead.

According to Rogalla's research, "A descendant's wife, Mary Ann Roberts filed an application to the Dawes Commission on behalf of her children. They were rejected. She said 'My children have Indian blood that comes from their father Eli Roberts who gets his Indian blood from his mother Joanna Tinsley (daughter of Thomas Tinsley and Sarah Chisholm) and her from her mother(Sarah Chisholm). Her mother was the sister of Absolom and William Chisholm whose names should appear on the Old Settler's Rolls west of the Mississippi River."

Another excellent witness for Cherokee enrollment, B.W. Alberty, testified: "I am a resident of Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation. I met Dave and William Chisholm near Belview Texas and they lived there on the [illegible] and I was introduced to them as living Cherokee's by George Harnage and also by William Harnage that is I know about them said they were kin of old Tom Chisholm of the Cherokee Nation (Thomas Chisholm was the interim 3rd Chief of the Western Cherokee Nation in Arkansas). Hornage told me they were relatives of old Tom Chisholm. That was the year of 1852 or 53. I would judge Dave Chisholm to be about 45 years old and William I think was the younger of the two."

 

John Ratling Gourd testified: "I am a resident of Tahlequah District, Cherokee Nation and am about 65 years old. I was acquainted with Absolom and William Chisholm when they lived low down in Georgia. This was about the time the Cherokee came to this country. They were among the first who left country and came west. They were Cherokee's by blood in at least that was looked upon as such. I first saw Absolom and William Chisholm at a council on the fork called by John ross in regard to the division of some money. These parties voted to not divide the money. They looked like Cherokee's and appeared to be half or three fourth. I saw William Tinsley several times. I understand he married into the Chisholm family."

These historical accounts are given here in detail to document the early Cherokee affiliation of the line. More could be added. Suffice it to say that the Chisholms and all their marriage partners were well known to Cherokee leaders from the 1760s on, first in the East and later, continuously in the West. The famous Chisholm Trail was named for the family. All the names are well documented in Cherokee and Melungeon genealogies, as well as U.S. Indian treaties, chiefs-lists and agency records. If we estimate the earliest named Cherokee's birthdate to be around 1700, we are in a period when the first intermarriages between English settlers and Indian women took place. It is unlikely that Amy or Annie was the daughter of an English woman, and the line she founded was "admixture." There is every reason on genealogical grounds to regard her T* haplotype as Cherokee, not Eurasian.

Amy-Annie apparently produced many direct descendants in the United States and Canada and had distant genetic cousins in Europe. Her prolific form of T* (16126C  16294T 16296T  16519C 73G 263G 315.1C) exactly matched individuals with origins in England, Cornwall, Quebec, France, Mississippi, California, North Carolina, Russia, Texas and Florida. Many of the haplotype assignments and origins were "unknown." As it turned out, they also matched Timothy Joseph Benjamin (18), an adoptee residing in Alva, Florida, who subsequently was able to have the Catholic  charity unseal his adoption records, and who learned that he was born in Burlington, Vermont, his given name at birth Joseph David Ward.

The verdict in Rogalla's report stated: 

 

Although not one of the classic Native American lineages (A, B, C, D, and X ‐‐ Schurr), T has been discovered in the Cherokee, Choctaw and other East Coast Indians (data on file; see DNA Consultants Blog, “Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee”). Most investigators attribute this to recent European admixture. But T haplotypes without exact Old World matches (we exclude T2 matches from consideration) could just as well be considered Native American if as prevalent as the subject’s is in North America. The majority of the T* matches in Mitosearch are possibly Native American in our estimation. In the presence of a genealogical tradition of the female line being Native American the haplotype should therefore be pronounced Native American. The matches in Mitosearch to Tennessee, North Carolina and surrounding states point to the Cherokees, although matches in Canada suggest a Canadian indigenous woman (where T has also been identified). The T* matches that are truly European (such as V2DER, Russia) may represent a remnant of the original Middle Eastern lineage that survived in Europe, but the largest expansion of the lineage was clearly in North America.

Fig. 11. Mother of Kathleen Rogalla (T*), Ethel Estell Caywood Christian, about 1930.

Fig. 12. Karen Worstell's grandmother Odessa Shields Cox (shown with her husband William M. Cox and Karen's mother Ethel as a baby about 1922) was born about 1904 in Indian Territory. She was known as Dessie. "My mother cut off all connection with her own mother sometime before I was born," says Worstell. "My grandmother has strikingly Indian features and I do wonder if perhaps she was an adopted Indian child." 

Fig. 13. Karen Worstell (56) tested as having a rather widely distributed T2c that matched Cherokees on official rolls, even though T is universally considered a non-Indian type. "There was tremendous secrecy about anything related to my Indian background," says Worstell. My grandfather used to call me 'squaw,' which would infuriate my mother."

Ward is a common Cherokee surname. A T2 who also happened to have the birth name of Timothy Benjamin (18) was Deann Ward of Vincennes, Indiana (19). Ward traced her unbroken female descent to a 3rd-great-grandmother, Olive Thompson, born about 1800, died 1850 in Lincoln County, Tenn. Her parents are unknown. Olive Thompson married Garrett Merrill of Rowan County, North Carolina, a locale bordering on the Cherokee. Ward's great-grandmother, Emily Roper (a surname common on Cherokee rolls), was born in Tennessee, February 19, 1848, the daughter of Joseph Roper. 

Karen Freeman Worstell (57) is a risk management professional in Gig Harbor, Washington, who wrote on April 24, 2010, "I just learned of the potential link between Cherokee and Eastern European Jews this morning. I was told I am Cherokee by my mother, and Scottish/Irish on my father's side. I am also deeply involved in the Messianic Jewish movement."  Her rather widely distributed T2c haplotype exactly matched two participants in Phase I of the DNA Cherokee Project. Patrick Pynes, a professor of indigenous studies in Arizona, was a descendant on Mitosearch, traced the line to Mildred Gentry (1792-1852) and Nancy Gentry Little (b. 1801). "According to oral tradition, Nancy Gentry was of Cherokee descent," he wrote for the record. "She moved with her family from Tennessee to Clark County, Arkansas, in 1817. During the 1830s she lived with her husband James Little and children in Washington County, Arkansas. Several of her neighbors were of documented Cherokee descent or had family connections with documented Cherokees. Nancy's mother's name was possibly 'Delilah Clark.' Her father was likely Tyre Gentry of South Carolina."

Worstell says her mother passed away after a lengthy illness at the age of 90 and kept her family origins a secret. "Once when I asked her why, she said, 'I want you to have friends to play with.'" Worstell never met her maternal grandparents but always heard stories of Cherokee relatives. One of her ancestors was on the Trail of Tears. She has published an elaborate family tree on Ancestry.com but continues, like Patrick Pynes, to find the earliest link.  Her maternal line research comes to an end with direct maternal ancestor Catherine Reed, born in 1776 in Loudoun County, Va. She married John Carlin on November 13, 1799, in Harrison County, (West) Virginia and died in Barbour County. Several of the figures she has identified in her research were labeled as mulatto in local records. Her mother's paternal grandmother was Choctaw. Says Worstell, " I don't know if I am chasing a myth or not."

Haplogroups U, U2, U5 and K

Haplogroup U is very old and deep seated in Eurasian populations. Its top-level subclades can all be seen as haplogroups in their own right. Those uncovered in this phase of our study consist of U, U2, U3, U5 and K (formerly U8). There were no examples of U4, characteristic especially of Balto-Slavic countries and Finland; U6, associated with Berbers; U7 primarily from the East Mediterranean to India; or U9, spread from Ethiopia and the Arabian Peninsula to Pakistan.

The complex mega-haplogroup was born on the edge of Northeast Africa and Arabia some 60,000 or more years ago, when the first Homo Sapiens exited the African continent. Complex human societies began with U. In Europe, where U types today (11%) are the second most common after H (40+%), U was the first lineage to encounter and interbreed with the declining Neanderthals. U was identified as a minor haplotype in surveys of Cherokee and other Southeastern Indians (Schurr, Bolnick), although its presence was attributed to "admixture." It has also reported in Mexican Indians (Green). U2 was the mitochondrial signature of a link between archaic Europeans and modern-day Native Americans discovered in the 24,000 year-old Ma'lta skeleton whose DNA was recently sequenced from near Lake Baikal (Raghavan et al. 2014).

Vivian A. Santos-Montanez (14), a Hebrew School teacher in DeLand, Fla., took a combination of Jewish and Native American DNA tests for herself and several family members. Her mitochondrial mutation set produced only one exact match in the world: Mercedes Rivera-Rivera, born about 1915 in Utuado, Puerto Rico. Based on family traditions, Santos believes her maternal line could have come from Cherokees sold into slavery during the Spanish colonial period who joined Taino Indians living in the remote mountainous region of her native Puerto Rico.

 

U5, U5a and U5b samples include 5 participants from Phase II and 6 from Phase I, totaling 11 for the project, the bulk of all U's. U5 is of interest because of its important role in the peopling of Europe (Malyarchuk et al 2010). It is the oldest mtDNA lineage in Europe which is human, with an estimated age estimated at 50,000 years ago, greatly predating the expansion of agriculture. In the new three-fold scheme of European ancestry, U5 is the largest contributor to the component known as WHG or Western European Hunter Gatherers (Lazaridis et al. 2014). U5 is also found in significant levels, however, in the Middle East, Northern Africa and Central Asia.

Elizabeth DeLand (67), who tested her mother Juanita L. Sims, a U5a1, had an unreported set of mutations in the Cambridge Concordance, but matched five persons in Mitosearch, all three different haplogroup assignments, U5 (Ireland), U5a1* (Alabama, Ireland) and Unknown (Ireland). DeLand reported that her grandmother and great-grandmother spoke Cherokee. The mother of Pamela Bowman, Juanita Wilson (65), was another U5a1, with no exact matches on both sectors.  Her rare/unique 16526A was reported in a single case by Van Oven and has been discussed sporadically on Internet boards. Bowman is a member of the CBC.  She shares her rare SNP with William Zachary Dylan Sizemore (179989), who traces his line to Lucinda Lusk, born January 31, 1823. The SNP also appears in the U5a1a* mutations of Dr. Bruce Dean (Phase I, no. 19), whose genealogy goes back to Jane Rose, a member of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, and who matched Marie Eastman, born 1901, Indian Territory.

Turning now to U2, we have an interesting U2e haplotype in Carol Myers Rymes, a genealogist, Melungeon descendant (her uncle is a Sizemore) and CBC member who has pursued her mitochondrial line for several years. In Mitosearch, her single match was a descendant claiming descent from Bridget Garrity, born about 1816 in Ireland. Rymes also matched her own record in CBC data, plus Brian Voncannon, a Williams descendant. Rymes has been active in restoring the Occoquan Burying Ground in Prince William County, Va., and wrote a book on the descendants of Samuel Rymes. There were six U2e's in Phase I.

With Charlotte Walker (36), U3, we have an exotic haplotype that seems to match only Native American lines. U3 is a minor haplogroup centered around the Black Sea, with a strong presence today in the northeastern part (Colchis, Scythia, Transcaucasus, the Steppes). It could be related to ancient Indo-Europeans. There were two exact matches in Mitosearch, one from Alvina (or Elwina), born about 1820 in South Carolina and thought to be Native American, and another from Sarah Elizabeth Snyder, born 1828, origin unknown. The information from all three congeners is incomplete and uncertain. And as textual transmission experts say, "One witness, no witness." Participant 36 is the only instance of U3 to date. There are two examples in CBC data.

K (formerly H8) is an important Jewish haplogroup, and it has a small, but significant presence across all datasets. There were 2 (3.0%) in Phase I and 4 (nos. 13, 29, 34, 53, 7.7%) in Phase II. The CBC data shows 11 K's (8.1%). Haplogroup K is represented by 17 samples in a grand total of 252 participants (6.7%), a lower incidence compared both to European populations (10%) and Ashkenazi Jews (32-50%).

Three of our K's (Ashley Nielsen 29, Earl Dulaney 34, Ann Pyle 53) had such rare haplotypes, all with unique, partly overlapping mutations, that no exact matches could be found in the databases. It was felt that this specificity spoke for types that died out and were no longer reported in the rest of the world but survived in an exotic North American population, where they had been implanted in the remote past. By comparison, the chances of a large number of unmatched modern types dating to European admixture in the Colonial window of history were estimated to be slim. 

To be continued...
 

Comments

Diana McDargh commented on 12-Oct-2014 12:36 PM

This is all fascinating. I just wish I could figure out my own native American. Census lists show my great grandmother as being white. Birth records aren't available as they were just beginning to be kept in some of the Ky. counties. I have an African American proved on one paternal side and native American proved on the maternal side, through DNA. I just can't line it up according to the records.

Elizabeth commented on 12-May-2015 01:27 PM

I've recently purchased a few books written by Donald N. Panther-Yates and wished I would have known of the Cherokee DNA Project he was conducting. I would have loved to have been included in it. I recently had a Full sequence MTDNA test done at FTDNA. My haplogroup came back C1c with my mutations on HVR1 & HVR2 matching exactly to Nancy Ward. My Mother always said that her Grandmother was an Indian, but never more than that. This is the reason I decided to look into doing the autosomal and mtdna tests. I wanted to know. I love reading the blogs.


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More Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee - Part One

Thursday, October 02, 2014

By Donald N. Yates

Because of its length, our long-awaited report on Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Project is being published in installments. Part I deals with the background of American Indian haplogroup analysis and the "peopling of the Americas" hypothesis that has prevailed in genetics since 1993. Part Two will describe our procedure and methodology. 



Abstract.
A purposive sample of individuals who took a mitochondrial DNA test to determine female lineage (n=67) was created from participants in DNA Consultants' Cherokee DNA Project Phase II. Almost all beforehand claimed matrilineal descent from a Native American woman, usually believed to be Cherokee, and often named in genealogy research undertaken by the customer. The majority of subjects revealed "anomalous" haplotypes not previously classified as American Indian. Many matched others in Phase I. Several individuals overcame the barrier of a sealed adoption to find biological relationships, often to other participants. As in Phase I, a Middle Eastern type, haplogroup T, emerged as the most common lineage (19.4% in Phase II, 22.7% overall in the project), followed by H, U and J, all Eurasian types. Sub-Saharan African haplogroup L (9%) was prominent as a minor category. Old Europe haplogroups I, N, V and W occurred in small amounts and should be considered strikingly new, unreported signals of authentic Cherokee ancestry.

 

Background

Ever since the pioneering work of Douglas C. Wallace, Rebecca L. Cann and others on the use of human mitochondrial DNA as a marker for genetic ancestry and disease, scientists have insisted on a very limited and rigid number of ancient Asian female founders for present-day American Indian populations. In 1993, Satoshi Horai of the National Institute of Genetics in Mishima, Japan was the lead author in a study with the agenda-setting title, "Peopling of the Americas, Founded by Four Major Lineages of Mitochondrial DNA." That same year, Antonio Torroni of the University of Pavia coined the term haplogroup in a publication in the American Journal of Human Genetics in which he and his co-authors postulated but four lineages, A, B, C and D to account for mitochondrial ancestries in their sample. Also in 1993, Anne C. Stone (Arizona State University) and Mark Stoneking (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology) confirmed the four haplogroups in a 1300 C.E. burial ground in central Illinois, the Norris Farms site. The year 1993 was truly an annus mirabilis in American Indian genetics. It remained only for the minor haplogroup X to be added to the original four lineages (Brown et al. 1998, Malhi and Smith 2002; Smith et al. 1999).

In the ensuing twenty years, academic studies, textbooks, the popular media and governmental policies fell into lockstep about the "peopling of the Americas." Despite a number of voices being raised in criticism (Jones; Guthrie; Jett), the model restricting American Indian ancestry to mitochondrial lineages A, B, C, D and X has remained intact. When direct-to-the-consumer DNA testing became available in 2000, commercial companies hopped on the abecedarian bandwagon. To paraphrase Henry Ford, you could have an Indian DNA test say anything you wanted as long as it was A, B, C, D and sometimes X. But were these haplogroup rules possibly equivocal and not conclusively decidable anyway?

Etched in stone along with the five classic Native American mitochondrial haplogroups has emerged a belief that all American Indians can be traced to a single entry from Siberia roughly 10,000 years ago across the Bering Strait, supposed at that time to have formed a land bridge. This prevailing notion was summarized and defended by Kemp and Schurr (2010). According to University of Florida doctoral dissertation writer Joseph Andrew Park Wilson, "Today it is rare to find a molecular anthropologist who favors more than two distinct migration events, and a majority of researchers are enamored with the single-origin hypothesis, which postulates just one founding group ancestral to all Native Americans." Wilson cites the following studies in support of this observation:  Bonatto and Salzano 1997; Fagundes et al. 2008; Goebel et al. 2008; Kolman et al. 1996; Merriwether et al. 1995; Mulligan et al. 2004; Rubicz et al. 2002; Stone and Stoneking 1998; Tamm et al. 2007; Tarazona-Santos and Santos 2002; Zegura et al. 2004 (p. 102).

Band-aids on the Battleship
This "A-D" thesis continues to stand with minor alterations. Perego et al. (2009) proposed on the basis of phylogeographic analysis of 69 mitochondrial types a  "simultaneous but independent Asian source populations for early American colonists." But this modification of the theory involving "two roads taken" still kept within the A-D canon and maintained the primacy of the Bering land bridge (aided in a minor way by a seaborne route from Asia using the "kelp road").

After extensive examination of the subject Wilson concludes that the five mtDNA haplogroups actually have complex, multilayered histories. Setting aside the initial colonization of the Americas with its foundational genetic imprint, a host of unsolved questions about the remainder of the pre-Columbian period persist as problematic, including the number, timing, impact, duration, direction and scale of movements between the Old World and New World. Moreover, the genetic story represents only one of the pieces of the puzzle; other evidence to be harmonized into a coherent "archeogenetic narrative" are languages and material culture (pp. 141-42).

Torroni and Wallace (then at Emory and La Sapienza in Rome, respectively) were apparently the first to use the term "anomalous" of mitochondrial types. However, in their important letter to the editor of the American Journal of Human Genetics in May 1995, they applied it rather narrowly to "a heterogeneous set of mtDNAs due either to recent genetic admixture or to new mutations that have abolished a preexisting primary marker," in other words to non-conforming types within the A-D paradigm.

Utterly "foreign" anomalies only came within the sights of geneticists in 2013, when a devastating shockwave hit the archeological establishment. At the epicenter was Danish researcher Eske Willerslev, who reported on two 24,000-year-old Siberian skeletons at the "First Americans Archeology" conference in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  The fullest sequencing of ancient human DNA to date suggested that the people who lived near Lake Baikal at the dawn of human civilizations, and who later developed into the Native Americans of the New World, came more proximately from a westernly direction in Europe, not from Asia. Moreover, the mitochondrial haplogroup of the so-called Mal'ta boy the Danish team sequenced was U, a "non-Indian" type (M. Raghavan et al. 2014). The term anomalous now extended to entire haplogroups that did not fit the mold.

On the face of it, no haplotyping study can distinguish between deep ancestry and more recent admixture as the cause of unusual variations in DNA. Whereas tools like "time to coalescence," bootstrapping and phylogenetic trees can be used to compare types and estimate genetic distance, no logarithm can tell the geneticist where any given haplotype may have arisen and become characteristic. Projections of the source, spread, mutation and survival of uni-parental haplotypes can be deceptive, especially when they telescope tens of thousands and sometimes hundreds of thousands of years.

Navajo Puzzles
To consider an apposite question from Navajo research, we might ask when did certain Asian genes in the modern-day Diné matching 4000-year-old DNA from Siberia and the Tarim Basin travel to the Americas? It could have been 20,000 years ago or it could have been in the 16th century. The "genetic signature" could have arrived by gradual "star-like" diffusion or through one or more discontinuous movements, some possibly seaborne, some repetitive, some marked by diversity of types, some non-diverse, some minor, some major, some conceivably separated from each other by centuries or millennia. Similar problems beset any modeling of tribally-specific genetic scenarios. As the Jones white paper pointed out long ago, geneticists have a tendency to take the long view and telescope genetic incidents. They often rely solely on statistical modeling applying classical evolutionary components like random mating and natural selection and do not take concerted account of histories, archeology, cultural baggage like myth and religion, and family or clan genealogies. 

So far, autosomal DNA analysis has not assumed a large role in elucidating haplogroup history and the subject of admixture. The Centre for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen's Natural History Museum of Denmark has led the way with a new "dual ancestry" model augmenting the A-D thesis. The current issue of Archaeology contains the heretical suggestion that "the earliest travelers to the New World made their way more than 20,000 years ago from what is now the west coast of France and northern Spain" (Swaminathan, p. 25), but this seems to be just another shot in the dark. A quite recent autosomal study of European DNA headed by Harvard's David Reich identified three ancestral populations on the basis of ancient DNA, one of which is Willerslev's "ancient North Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians," called ANE (Lazaridis et al. 2014). Belonging to haplogroup U, and sharing some alleles with 8,000-year-old Scandinavian hunter-gatherers, ANE is thus an ancient link between Europeans and Native Americans, one quite separate incidentally from Turkic Chuvash and N-dominated Saami, both of which "are more related to east Asians than can be explained by ANE admixture" (p. 412). Haplogroup U has thus been established as an ancient founding haplogroup in Native American populations, dating back 24,000 years ago to the same time period as the A-D canon.

It is to be hoped that genetics will embark on a fundamental new beginning for the study of American Indian haplotypes rather than continue to repair outworn theories. Promisingly for Cherokee research, Willerslev's team in Denmark has included several participants in the present project as part of a larger study. The Danish initiative has sampled the 35,000 members of the Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama:  Dr. Joel E. Harris, Sr. maintains a communication page.


Photo above:  Participant #56, Karen Freeman Worstell, a risk management professional in Gig Harbor, Washington. Worstell tested as having a very rare T* that matched Cherokees on official rolls, even though T is universally considered a non-Indian type. She says, "I was always told we were Cherokee by my mother." Her T haplotype exactly matched two participants in Phase I of the DNA Cherokee Project, both relatives of Patrick Pynes, a professor of indigenous studies in Arizona. Pynes has traced the line to Mildred Gentry (1792-1852) and Nancy Gentry (b. 1801), daughters of the wife of Tyree Gentry, sometimes named as Delilah.  

 
Karen Worstell's grandmother Odessa Shields Cox (shown with her husband William M. Cox and Karen's mother Ethel about 1922) was born about 1904 in Indian Territory. "As for my family's oral history," says Worstell, "there was tremendous secrecy about anything related to my Indian background. My grandfather used to call me 'squaw,' which would infuriate my mother. My mother cut off all connection with her own mother sometime before I was born. My grandmother has strikingly Indian features and I do wonder if perhaps she was an adopted Indian child." 

Comments

Nae Boots commented on 03-Oct-2014 10:33 PM

at least they can't call my grandma a liar anymore. and that is good enough for now.

Janice Maxwell commented on 24-Mar-2015 11:36 AM

I have had my DNA done a few years ago. I am in the Hap group "T". I have Cherokee heritage from my mother and my father. How can I get involved with the Native American studies. I would like to see where my results fit in with the other Cherokee people.


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The China Wire - Part Two

Friday, August 08, 2014

Buddhist Priests in Ancient Arizona



Monument on northeast boundary of the Ironwood National Forest in the Samaniego Hills.


By and large, the genetics literature on American Indians has been confined to small, scattered samples gleaned from modern groups. This morass of information is vast, growing, and inconclusive.

Attempting to present the "peopling of the Americas" from such a reductive approach is like playing a game of Solitaire with important cards missing.

One Brazilian geneticist completely despaired of any solution as long ago as 2002. Francisco Salzano wrote in an article titled "Molecular Variability in Amerindians:  Widespread but Uneven Information, that "the present trend of favoring essentially applied research suggests that the situation will not basically improve in the future" (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, vol. 74, no. 2, p. 1).

It hasn't, of course. We shall not attempt here anything like a synthesis of the subject, although a later installment in this series will tackle the autosomal DNA story. Only alternative approaches such as alu insertions, human lymphocyte antigens and autosomal DNA can possibly cut the Gordian knot.

Turning from DNA to Actual History
In the meantime, let us continue the thread begun with "Did the Chinese Settle in Northwest Mexico and the American Southwest" (blog post, July 30, 2014).  In Part One, we saw that the Mexicans and Chinese retain memories of Chinese settlement in the New World if most Americans do not.

The classic historical reference is a Chinese text about the Land of Fusang, an account redacted in the 14th century describing events going back to the fifth century. It occurs in the 41st Book of Chüan (or Kuen 327) in the 230th volume of the Great Chinese Encyclopedia, a vast imperial compilation known simply as The Chinese Classics. Joseph de Guignes, a learned French Orientalist, sinologist and Turkologist, brought it to the attention of the Western world in 1761.

De Guignes identified the original narrator as Hwui Shen (or Hui Shen), a Buddhist priest from Kabul (Afghanistan, then part of India), who visited ancient Mexico with four or five other priests in 458 C.E. Hui Shen appeared before the Chinese emperor in 499 and gave an exact account of his travels, surviving in several versions (see the summary in Henriette Mertz, Pale Ink, pp. 21-22).  

De Guignes' report on the Chinese in the Americas appeared in the papers of the French Academy of Inscriptions and Royal Society of London and confounded Europe.  Savants over the next two hundred years—Julius Klaproth (1831), Dominique Alexandre Godron, Joseph Needham—confirmed Hui Shen's place in history. In 1885, Edward P. Vining published the provocatively but succinctly titled Inglorious Columbus: or, Evidence that Hwui Shen and a Party of Buddhist Priests from Afghanistan Discovered America (see extensive bibliog. in Stan Steiner, Fusang, p. 240-44).

If Buddhist priests were living in sixth century Arizona, skeptics may charge, they can't have left much proof of their existence. Their landfall in the Americas was no doubt accidental. They left no enduring mark. It's as if it never happened. In fact, it probably did not happen. Hui Shen's story is a charming fairy tale, not a historical account.

Mesoamerican Religious Practices
To the contrary, there are numerous signs of a deep and lasting Asiatic imprint in Mexico. No less an authority than Hubert Howe Bancroft devotes many pages to the bewilderingly diverse forms of religion among ancient Mexican Indians. Of those in Sonora, Sinaloa and Durango, he writes:  "They had innumerable private idols, penates of all possible and impossible figures, some being stone, shaped by nature only" (Native Races, vol. 3, Myths and Languages, San Francisco, 1882, p. 179).

 

 Lingams and cross at San Xavier.

He notes that some Western Mexican tribes worshipped a black stone like the Kaaba in Mecca, and that Quetzalcoatl and other divinities were connected with stone-worship (p. 281). One Americanist "even explains the meaning of the name Quetzalcoatl despite the usual definition as 'twin of a precious stone.'"

If all this sounds like lingam worship, perhaps it is. In our rambles through the Ironwoods National Forest we were surprised to discover an altar we dubbed Bighead in a hidden cove (see photo). When we questioned a Papago elder he recognized the place immediately and said it was one of his people's most sacred shrines. 

The closest member of the Tohono O'odham Nation, as the Papagos are now known, lives in Tucson, thirty miles away, but certain religious leaders still know this now-empty territory like the back of their hand.

We were not completely shocked after this, when we visited the Mission of San Xavier del Bac, which serves as the parish church for the Papagos living around Tucson.There we photographed a collection of Shaivistic lingams placed beneath the giant Christian cross. The heirs of the Hohokam may have adopted the creed of the Jesuits and Franciscans but apparently they cling to some of their old forms of worship.

Some Possible Echoes in Place-Names
Mertz proposes that the very word Sinaloa (in Nahuatl Zineloque) is derived from Chinelos, "foreigners." She draws attention to the Huichol Indians, who live around Colima, a possible origin point according to a consensus of archeologists for the early Hohokam. These carriers of Arizona's first advanced native culture arrived around 400 C.E. from the south with a fully formed society, featuring, among other things, distinctive pottery, copper bells, cremation practices and irrigation knowledge.

"The religious nature of the Huichol," writes Mertz, "and their attendant religious ceremonies, had strong Buddhist characteristics . . . Some Huicholes bore such striking resemblance to the Chinese that the Mexicans called them 'Chinos'" (p. 73).

Mertz speculates that certain place-names in the Sonoran Desert and West Mexico coast commemorate Asian colonies. The name of Picacho, the hat-shaped landmark that dominates the barren lands between Phoenix and Tucson, may derive from Pi-k'iu (compare Sanskrit Bhiksu "mendicant priest").

Sacaton, an important Hohokam town, seems to bear the name of the Buddha's clan—Saka or Sakya. Prince Siddhartha Shakya (5th century BCE) was the founder of Buddhism and came to be known as Gautama Buddha. Related, according to Mertz, are the names Zacatecas and Zacatlan.

Well, that is all fine and dandy, you may say, vague legends and twisted linguistic analogies. Where's the hard evidence?

An Unusual Petroglyph
Not far from Picacho Peak and Tucson are the Santa Catalina Mountains, and on the Golden Ranch north of the Catalina State Park are the San Ysidro Ruins. Here is located what we suggest is as hard a piece of evidence as you could hope to find. It is a petroglyph of the Buddha meditating in a lotus position. Unmistakable, the iconic figure appears on a rock panel over older, conventional fertility figures and hunting scenes and can be dated to about 1500 years ago (see photo).

If Buddhist priests came to the Hohokam heartland long ago, as recounted in the Chinese Classics, they were hardly idle travelers or adventurers. They were self-described missionaries with a serious purpose. They expected to find people they could communicate with and convert. That the Hohokam and their parent populations already included a sizable Asiatic element is a given.

Asian residents, not mere visitors, are frankly implied in a Chinese poem quoted by Steiner:

Where the sun rises

In the land of Fu Sang

There is my home.

Seeking fame and riches

I came to the land

Of the eternal flowers.

So the "Land of the Eternal Flowers," Fusang, is West Mexico, from Arizona, California and Sonora to Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Michoacán. Hwui Chen went back to the Orient, but obviously other compatriots of his stayed and called America home. 

In Nayarit, which appears to be the center of Chinese and Buddhist influence, Bancroft reports that the ancient inhabitants conceived of heaven or paradise as filled with ministering healers "with shaved heads." After death, he writes, the good Indians "went to a place . . . where they lived under the care of men with shaved heads" (p. 529). They also believed in transmigration of souls (p. 529).

Being for the most part celibate, the men with the shaved heads cannot have left progeny, so it would be fruitless to look for their legacy in the DNA record. But that is not the case for the Chinese merchant who emigrated to Fusang to seek fame and riches. Moreover, Chinese junks were capable of transporting an entire colony numbering in the thousands, including women.

Could there be an autosomal trace of gene flow from the East, if not a Y chromosome or mitochondrial trail? Our next post will examine this possibility.


Comments

Donovan commented on 22-Sep-2014 10:12 PM

The Native Americans are the Hebrew Peleg branch. They picked up religious customs while migrating to the Americas. A few of their cousins the Chinese and other various Shemitic Island people may have joined them or assisted them in their Journey to the New World.

Robert Bridgford commented on 06-Oct-2014 02:59 PM

I believe the slanted-eyed giants of which my Cherokee ancestors speak of had been of China; "came from, ...returned to the west,...", the Priests who lead the mound-building of the Mississippi "period," likely, from my finds of connections, being that both the mound builders, & giants, had bred with the Cherokee people, indeed were those venturing to Fusang, (America). I find great truth for a man of the government on Facebook discredited, with GREAT persistence, such had been NOT so. Any information would be appreciated very much.


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The China Wire - Part One

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Did the Chinese Settle in Northern Mexico and the American Southwest?

We had just finished a meal of delicious fish tacos at what was to become our favorite Mexican restaurant on the Southside of Phoenix. The cook and owner was a lady from Sinaloa. She asked what I did for a living, and when I told her DNA testing, she immediately said, "I imagine our DNA in Mexico is a combination of Spanish, Indian and Chinese, right?"

            Her frankness took me aback. I have read all that Bancroft, Menzies, Thompson, Mertz, Stewart and others have to say on the pre-Columbian Chinese presence. Our favorite source is actually a book little read today but excellent and authoritative. Fusang: The Chinese Who Built America was published in 1979 by the impeccable American historian of multiculturalism, Stan Steiner. He covers the subject very thoroughly and definitively in Book One:  The Chinese Who Discovered America, beginning with the Buddhist missions to America in 441 C.E.

            Recent contributions by Charlotte Harris Reese continuing the scholarly work of her father Hendon M. Harris, Jr., (The Asiatic Fathers of America) have literally put Chinese exploration and settlement on the map, if not in the textbooks.

            What will it take to persuade people of the fact of Chinese visits and even colonization and influence? Evidently, more than a steady stream of respected bestsellers and blockbuster exhibitions at the nation's capital.

            Yet as Steiner notes in his introduction (p. xi), "The mysteries of history are only mysterious to those who are ignorant of them."  Perhaps DNA could help dress up an old topic and make even the willfully ignorant take notice?

            Alu insertions are short stretches of DNA implicated in the study of disease. They provide useful markers for the study of inter-population affinities and historical processes.  Data on these systems are not numerous in Native Americans and related Asiatic populations. What has been published is highly specialized and not for the faint of heart.

            Haplotype studies have occasionally found Asian types in the New World, though these anomalies are usually brushed aside. That not more attention has been paid to them is surprising in the light of ancient "Amerindian" DNA. One of the oldest and perhaps most leading pieces of evidence came from a 5,000-year-old burial in China Lake, British Columbia (!). The two individuals were both mitochondrial haplogroup M, a type that is widely distributed and even dominant in parts of Asia today. But the discoverer, a genetics professor, despite the fact that he was of Asian ancestry himself, could not bring himself to regard the individuals as having Asian ancestry. He timorously concluded only that "the founding migrants of the Americas exhibited greater genetic diversity than previously recognized" (p. 642). See "Mitochondrial Haplogroup M Discovered in Prehistoric North Americans."

            M is the single most common mtDNA haplogroup in Asia, according to Kivisild et al. ("The Emerging Limbs and Twigs of the East Asian mtDNA Tree"). It peaks in Japan and Tibet, where it represents about 70% of the maternal lineages and is pervasive in India, where it has approximately 60% frequency. Among the Chinese, haplogroup M accounts for approximately 50% of all people.

            In our own studies of Sephardic haplotypes, we found a not-insignificant number of cases of O3, a pure Asian type, for instance, Burquez (Mexico) and Ronquillo (New Mexico); see chapter 3, "Sephardim in the New World," in Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America (2012). Unbroken Chinese descent from Native American males marrying Mexican women is a more natural explanation than far-wandered Chinese merchants among the Spanish settlers.  

            We look forward to investigating the female lineages among the colonial populations especially of New Mexico, Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima and Michoacán. In the meantime, it occurs to us that perhaps autosomal DNA may harbor some of the answers.

            Stay tuned for our next post, which will report an investigation of three autosomal markers that could provide solid evidence for Chinese DNA buried in the genetic record of West Mexico and the American Southwest.

Photo above:  Greenstone figure of a youth holding a limp were-jaguar baby, found in the Mexican state of Veracruz in the Olmec heartland, is East Asian looking to most people. No one has doubted its authenticity. Wiki Commons.
        

            

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DNA Consultants Method in a Nutshell

Monday, July 21, 2014
We often are asked, "How does your ancestry analysis work," and "What makes it different from other methods?" Principal Investigator Donald Yates was recently interviewed along these lines and here are his answers.

How do DNA ancestry tests work—or not work? It is fairly simple to explain the difference between first-generation tests that looked at your sex-linked lines and the new wave of admixture and population match tests that examine your whole ancestry.  The pitfalls of Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplotying tests are well known: information limited to only two lines in your tree, irrelevant broad matches instead of valid exact matches, false results from non-paternity events, outdated genetic theories about human prehistory and historical migrations and so forth. So-called "percentage tests" did little to alleviate the situation. Now many companies are claiming to test thousands of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). However, the inferences linked to these are mostly still based on sex-linked data, medical studies and haplotype surveys. That is not truly an autosomal method, since the meaning of autosomal is non-sex-linked.  The DNA profile method (CoDIS markers) offers the next best thing to "percentage tests." Using true autosomal data and capturing published STR values for world populations, it calculates your random match frequencies and can probabilistically predict ancestry according to several parameters, including metapopulations, megapopulations, ethnic marker affinity and rare alleles.

Above:  Each test in the DNA Fingerprint family of products starts with a 16-loci DNA fingerprint or profile from the lab. Green indicates the so-called "core CoDEX" loci, which yield the greatest coverage in population data. Yellow shows four additional ones for which there is a lesser number of populations, and blue shows two extra loci used in the European system (our EURO section). 

For more information

Autosomal DNA Set to Rewrite History of "Peopling of the Americas" (announcement)
Emerging Prehistory of Ethnic Groups (blog post)
Autosomal Testing Revalidated (blog post)


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Was Your Colonial Forebear Jewish?

Monday, April 21, 2014


One of the remarkable suggestions in our book Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America (McFarland 2012) was that both the First Families of Virginia and Pilgrim Mothers and Fathers of Massachusetts included many colonists of Jewish ancestry (usually Sephardic). There were, in fact, Jews, ex-Jews and crypto-Jews (and Muslims and crypto-Muslims) hidden in the ship passenger lists and early tax rolls of all thirteen colonies, with Georgia (chapter 9) proposed to be the "most Jewish." 

We give here the index from that book, the second volume in a series that began with When Scotland Was Jewish (2007) and concludes next month with the publication of The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales:  A Genetic and Genealogical History. 

Are any of your colonial ancestors listed? It is likely they bore Jewish ancestry, even if they did not practice Judaism and presented themselves as Christian. In future blogs, we will reproduce other colonist roisters from the appendices of the book, which cover Virginia to Georgia. Below is the master index to page numbers, which does not pick up every single name but does note any name discussed or mentioned in the body of the text. 

Abbadie  150

Abbey  68

Abdelloe  178

Abel/Abell 66, 116

Abennomen  165

Abercorn  165

Abercromby  147

Aberdaun  165

Aberdeen  51, 58, 170, 182

Aboab  39

Abraham/Abrahams  117-18, 132, 134

Abrahamsen  91

academies  186

Acker/Ackerman  112

Acker/Acre  114, 116

Acosta  103

Ada  177

Adair  36, 136-38, 146, 160

Adams/Addams   43, 66, 67, 103, 111, 124, 185

Adar  175

Adel/Adela  177

Adela  177

Adelaide  177

Adeline  155, 177

Aden  171

Adjai  167

Adkins  36, 137

Adye  167

Aegler  118

Agar  66

Aguilar  35

Ahiman Rezon, The  185

Aithcock  51

Alabama  161, 188

Alamza  154

Albany  83, 92, 96-98

Albigensians  114, 181

Albright  117, 121

Alcade  178

Aleef/Alif  124

Alen, van  100

Alexander  36, 43, 80, 90, 98, 100, 111, 187

Alfari/Alferry  117

Algeier  116

Algeria  116, 164

Alida  100

aliyah  79

Alkabetz, Shlomo Halevi  68

Allee/Ali  124

Alleman  118

Allen  43, 116, 147

Almora  30

Alpheus  185

Alsace-Lorraine  114, 118, 151, 160, 166

Amadas, Philip  14, 23,  47

Amaker  146

Amatis  163

Ames  67, 111, 114

Amesbury, Mass.  78, 81

Amir  70, 185

Amish  114, 119

Amma  114

Amman  114, 119

Ammon  see  Hammon

Amory  146

Amos  67

Amsterdam  65, 83-91, 141

Anatta  117

Anderson  162

Andover, Mass.  70

Andrews/Andrus  40, 43, 53

Andronicus  67

Ane, de  185

Angelo  134

Anglo-Saxon  60, 99

Angola Neck  124

Annon  132

Ansegisele  177

Anthon/Anthony  13, 55, 91

Antill  99

Antwerp  85

Apollonius of Tyana  179

Apunkshunnubbee  161

Aquila  125, 128

Aquitaine  141

Arabia  117

Arabic  154

Araminta  125

Aras  112

Arawak Indians  31

Arbell, Mordecai  29, 40-41, 85, 169

Arbo  117

Arcajah  154

Archelaus  171

Archer, Gabriel  51

Aree/Arey  124

Aretas  77

Argall, Samuel  52

Armor  111

Arnau  43

Arnaut  91

Arnett  186

Arnold  100; Benedict  116, 184

Arnulf of Herstal  177

Arrobas  169

Arthur  167, 178

Arundel   23, 47

Asahal  171

Ascham, Roger  21

Ascough  11

Asenith/Seneth  155

Ash/Ashe  76, 116, 186

Ashcom  132

Ashfield  99

Ashler  118

Ashley  129

Ashley-Cooper, Anthony  145, 162

Ashmole, Elias  21, 173-75, 177-79, 181, 185, 186

Ashmolean Museum  173

Ashmore  167

Ashton  116

Asians  28, 33

Askew  111

Astor:  103; John Jacob 56

Athelstone  175

Athens  117

Athias  40

Atkin  58

Attakullakulla  148, 163

Attia  174

Aubry  47

Augusta, Ga.  162, 165, 169-70

Augustein  118

Austin  36, 77, 126, 148

Austria  119

Auvergne  140

Avarilla  171

Averroism  14

Avicenna  181

Avignon  141

Avila  30, 147

Ayllon, de  144

Aymand  147

Aynon  175

Ayr  142

Ayrault  142

Ayres  126

Azariah  155

Azikiwe, Nnamdi  5

Azores  15, 28-29

Aztec Indians 33-34

Baasz  112

Babylon  24

Babylonian  140

Baca  34

Bacchus  175, 177

Backhouse  177

Backshell  167

Bacon:  181, Francis  179-180

Bacquencourt, de  151

Badenooon  165

Baeck  128

Baecksel  167

Bagge  117

Baggett  36

Bagley  111

Bagnall  68

Bagoh  178

Bagot  178

Bagsell  54

Bailleux, de  150

Bailly  150

Bain  170

Baldwin/Baudoin  116

Ball  43, 57, 186

Ballard  66

Baltimore  123, 136-37

Bamberg  166

banks 74

Banos  30

Baptists  68, 166

Barak  117; see also Baruch

Baram  53

Barbados  41, 55, 86, 95-96, 99, 132, 145

Barbalha  142

Barbauld  142; see also Barbo

Barbeaux  167

Barberie  97

Barbero, Alessandro  177

Barbo  167

Barbot  143

Barentsen  91

Barfoot  51

Barksdale  167

Barlow, Arthur  14, 16, 47

Barnard  167

Barne/Barney  19, 66, 125, 128

Barnes  137, 179

Barnett  42, 43, 100

Baron/Barron  118

Barr  114, 118

Barratt  185

Barre  150

Barrett 18, 43, 184

Barriers  137

Barrow  68

Barruck  127, 150

Barry  111

Barsham  67

Bartholomaeie  112

Barton  143

Baruch/ Baroch  68, 109, 114, 116, 167

Basanier, Martin  46

Basque  178

Bass/Basse  53, 67, 185

Bassett  68, 70

Bat  112

Batista  30

Batt  110

Batz  150

Bavaria  166

Bayer, Henry G.  89

Bayley  150

Bayly/Bailey  111

Bayonne  141

Bazill/Basil  134, 143

Bea/Bee  91, 148

Beale  148

Beamer/Beamor  170

Bean  170

Beares/Bears  112

Beauchamp  63, 68, 126

Beaudel  161

Bechtelll  117

Beck  128

Bedat, du  152

Beekman  97-98, 103

Beford  162

Begga  177

Beit Shean  185

Belcastel  150

Belcher  181

Belgians  89

Belitha  162

Bell  51, 78, 138

Bella/Bellah  115

Bellew  23

Bellington  108

Belmonte/Bellomont  95, 103

Ben Israel, Menasseh  9, 29, 39, 47, 84

Benamour  170

Benarus, Luna  29

Bendal  67

Bender  118

Benejah  171

Benetez  28

Benham  67

Benison  167

Benitez  31

Benjamin  97, 132, 178

Bennett  53, 184

Benoni  132

Bensalem  181

Bensaudes  29

Bentzel  114

Benzet  117

Benzien  117

Benzion  117

Berbers  26-27, 39, 117, 128, 153, 167

Berenson  91

Beriah  67

Berkeley  53

Berkshire County, Pa.  116

Bermejo, Juan Rodriguez  8

Bernal  31

Bernard  143

Bernard/Bernhard  41, 167

Berry  80

Bertonneau  143

Besly  143

Bessor  179

Beth Elohim Congregation  157

Bethany  170

Bethel  116

Bethencourt, Juan de  27

Bethia  78

Bethlehem  174

Bethulia  111

Betton  185

Beverhoudt, van  168

Beverley, Robert  56

Beverly, Mass.  70

Bevis Marks  164, 188

Bey  89

Bicker  86

Bidardike  112

Biddle  103

Biggs  53

Bilhah  184

Billington  106

Birchum/Berghoum  155

Bird/Byrd  55-57, 85, 95, 99, 104

Birmingham  125

Bises/Beziz  178

Black  85

Black Dutch  161

Black Fox  120, 137, 187

Black Irish  161

Blackall  96

Blackheaded Cooper, chief  188

Blackwell  43

Blaeu, Joan  84

Blair  184

Blakiston  134

Blanchan  89

Blanchard  185

Bland  77

Blandford-Bute Lodge  185

Blaquire  150

Blatser  100

Bless  114

Blessing  70

Blevins  36, 137, 171

Bloom  94

Bloomart  86

Bluett  53

Blum  115

Boas  179, 184

Bodell  161

Bogomils  114

Bohun, Lawrence, Dr.  52

Boileau  150

Bois, du  88

Boleyn   20

Bolivar  125

Bomonzore  178

Bon  125

Bond  186; see also Bondi

Bondi/Biondi  162

Bondurant  170

Boniten  47

Bonneau  146

Bonnell  150

Bonney  79

Bono  125

Book of Creation, The  179

Boone  6, 36, 40, 51, 52, 56, 120, 125, 136, 137, 148, 161, 171-72, 186

Booth  132

Boozer  146

Bordeaux  141, 146, 150

Borden  99

Borges  47, 167

Borough/Boroughs  51, 150

Bose, du  146

Bosomworth  167

Boston  82

Boude  186

Boudinot  91, 184

Bouherar  150

Boules  117

Bouquett  91

Bourquin  167

Boutellier  167

Bowdle  161-62, 167

Bowen  98, 187

Bower  128

Bowling  162, 167

Bowyer  174-74

Brabant  167

Bradby  51

Bradford, William  62-64, 77, 86

Bradstreet  70

Brandenburg  178

Brandner  166

Brandon  41, 43, 164

Brashear  137

Brasier  91

Brassey  109

Bratton  146

Braund, Kathryn Holland  169

Braveboy  51

Brazil  86, 91, 103, 144, 154

Bremen  42

Bremige  47

Brenneiss  118

Brereton  130

Bresteede  90

Brewer  174

Brewington  50

Brewster  65-66

Brezca  125

Bright  67

Brimage  186

Brisbee  78

Briscoe  125-26

Bristol  11, 53-54, 105-8

Brocas  150

Brock/Brocke  54

Brook/Brooke  57, 109

Broom  184

Broucard  89

Broussee  54

Brouwer  89

Browewich  47

Brown, Rae & Company  169

Brown/Browne  36, 41, 43, 66, 67, 72, 132, 144, 171, 187

Bruce  43, 54

Brugh, van  98

Brun, Le  143

Brusie  100

Bryan/Bryant  43, 136, 138

Buatt  114

Bubar/Buber  112

Buchanan  147

Buckman  112

Bucks County, Pa.  117-18

Budaeus  186

Budocushyde  18

Buen/Bueno  91, 125

Buffalo Creek, N.C.  185

Buffam  68

Bulgar  67

Bull  148

Bulloch/Bullock  102, 147

Bunch  36

Bundy  162

Bunning  170

Buntin  112

Burgeois, de  151

Burges/Burgess  151, 167

Burke  120, 138

Burnett  51, 137

Burns, Rinnah Bonnie  119

Burr  67

Burton  162

Bus, de  114

Bush  43

Buss, Wanda Looney  187

Bute  185

Butler  167, 178

Buych  83

Buys  89

Byrd, William  55-56, 58

Bysshe  178

cabala  15, 20, 114, 174-76, 179, 184, 185

Cabarrus  186

Cabot  80

Cadiz  112, 117

Cadwalader  112, 186

Caen  95, 153

Caillemotte, La  151

Calais  88-89

Calderon  31

Caldwell  36, 146, 167, 170

Calef  67

Calhoun  146

Callahan  43

Calvert  123

Calvinists  141

Calwell  see  Caldwell

Cambon  151

Cambridge University  20-21, 95

Cammell  134

Campanal  92

Campbell  36, 43, 120, 148, 184

Camuse/Camus  164, 167

Canaan  113

Canaan  185

Canada  42, 85

Canada/Candia/Candiani/Candi  124

Canary Islands  18, 27-28, 47

Candelaria  31

Candy  168

Canide  117

Cannon  185

Canoday  see Canada

Canter/Cantor  113, 117, 120

Cantrell  142

Cape Girardeau  160

Capelle/Cappell  114, 184

Capen  67

Cappe  41, 53

Carballo  30

Card  53

Cardozo  84

Carew   13

Carey/Cary  112, 124

Caribbean  40-42, 66, 68-70, 85-87, 94, 146, 167-69

Carmuk  117

Carnall  124

Carnegie  103

Carolinas  36, 171; see also North Carolina; South Carolina

Carow  102

Carpenter/Carpentier  162

Carre  142, 151

Carrier  72

Carroll  184

Carter  36, 43, 50, 57

Carteret  106

Cartier  43

Carvajal  34, 47

Casaubon  179

Caselick  127

Casier  88-89

Cassandra  125, 171

Cassas, Alberto de las  27

Cassel  43, 127

Casson  127

Castelin, John  19

Castile, Spain  117

Castill  117

Catalonia  140

Catawba Indians  55

Cathars  114, 179, 181

Caton  67, 114

Cats  90

Caudill  36

Causey  53

Cavendish, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Cecil, William (1st Baron Burghley)  19, 21

Cenus Rosa  155

Cervantes  33

Chaffin  36, 136

Chaigneau  151

Chaim  117; see also Haim/Haym

Chamberlaine  151

Champagne  151

Champernoun   12, 18

Chaplin  53

Chapman  53, 112, 117, 185

Charlemagne  76, 176-77

Charles  II  106, 181

Charles Martel  175-77

Charlestown  187

Charpeles  116

Chartier, Martin   120

Chase  103

Chauny, Picardy  167

Chavez  34

Chavez, Angelico  34

Chavis  51

Cheever  67

Cheke, John  21, 22

Chelsea  72-73

Chenevix  151

Cherokee Indians  36, 55, 120, 137-38, 147-48, 167, 170, 187-88

Cherouse  168

Cherry  185

Chesebrough  67

Cheshire  129-30

Cheson  43

Chessed  132

Chester County, Pa.  116-17

Chew  135

Chickamauga  188

Chickasaw Indians  160-61, 169

Childe, Robert  178

China  56, 83, 85, 163

Chloe  171

Choctaw Indians  160-61

Chodowiesky, Johann  179

Choice of Emblems  179

Christopher  137

Christy  36

Chupa  116

Churton, Tobias  173, 178

Ciboney Indians  29

circumcision  178

citrus  28, 153

Clapp  68

Clark/Clarke   13, 43, 47, 69, 124, 167, 184, 187

Clarkson  98

Claypoole  108

Clewis  50

Cline  119

Cloeraly  50

Clopper  90

Cloyes  70

Clymer  74

Cobb  50

Coburg  166

Cock/Cocke  73, 117

Coen  85, 100

Coerten  89

Coeymans  100

Coffee  137, 167

Cogu  89

Cohaire  Indians  50

Cohan, George M.  43

Cohen  43, 57, 73, 85, 89, 100, 113, 118, 147, 162, 164, 170

Colden  99

Coligny  144

Colina  142

Collier  174

Collins   18, 36, 142, 167

Collop  51

Collot  151

Cologne  84

Colon  31; see also Columbus, Christopher

Columbus, Christopher  7-8, 27, 29, 31, 41

Columbus, Ga.  164

Comegys  127

Compagnie des Indes  159-60

Company for the Mines Royal  12

Comyns  148

Conant  68

Conellier, de la  148

Coney  67

Connecticut  184

Conraets  86

Constable  57

Constanta  66

Constitution  97, 185

Conversos  7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 34, 40, 43, 46, 49, 124, 141, 144

Cook/Cooke  128; Lewis 184

Cooper 13, 36, 43, 50, 90, 100, 103, 120, 125-26, 129, 137-38, 147-48, 161-62, 167, 171, 185-86

Copenhagen  119

Copland/Copeland  68, 183

Copper see Cooper

Coppyn  54

coral trade  83

Coram  162

Corbett  124

Cordes  146

Corey  71

Corgin  57

Cornell  100

Cornier  89

Cornwall  11-12, 15, 16, 23, 24

Coronell  100

Cortes, Hernan  33

Cortland/ Cortlandt/Courtlandt, van  94, 100, 103

Costa, de/da  29, 84, 147, 152, 158, 164, 185

Costas  56, 57, 136; see also Costa

Cothoneau  142

Cotman  128

Cotton  67

Coulon  142

Courland  87

Coursey  125

Courson  134

Courtong  see  Courtonne

Courtonne  167

Cousin/Cussen/Cousins  151

Cousseau  88-89

Cowan/Cowen  36, 113

Cowl/Cowell  102

Cox/Coxe  167, 170, 186

Craddock  66

Cramer  121

Crane  79

Cray  91

Creek Indians  148, 167, 170, 172

Creek Mary  164

Cressman  118

Cresson  89

Crispel  89

Croatians  48, 50

Crohan  118

Crommelin  97-98, 150, 154

Cromwell  48, 137; Oliver 9, 96

Cross  118, 167

Crosse, Sir Robert  15

Crothaire  153

Crouch  126

Crowder  53

Cruger  98, 115

Cruz  30, 34, 167

Cuba  29-31

Cumberford  134

Cumberland Gap  36

Cumbo  51

Cummings/Cummins  148

Cuntz  see Koons/Kuntz

Curacao  98

Currier  81

Cushman  77

Cussen see Cousin

Custis  56, 57, 136

Cuyler  98

Cyprus  89, 108

Cyrus  112

Czech  53

Czepler  121

Dakes  124

Dalbo  117

Dale, Thomas, Sir  52

Damaris  66

Damen  89

Dana  67

Danan/Danna  155

Dandridge  59

Dane  70

Danforth  81

Danielsen  90

Danin  113

Dare  36, 50

Dare, Ananais  14

Dare, Virginia  50

Dargent  151

Darien  165, 167, 170

Darrah  117

Darrell  100

Dasher  166

Dashiell  128

Davenport  43, 137

David   11, 25, 35-36, 43, 66, 67, 91, 100, 109, 114, 177, 178

Davidson  115

Davies  99

Davis  43, 70, 119, 126, 128, 138, 170

Dawes  67, 184

Day  70, 116

Deane  185

Deborah  72

DeBrahm  170

Decker  100

Declaration of Independence  98, 183

Dee  14, 178; John 14, 21-22, 178-79

Defoe, Daniel  84, 167

Dela  177

Delancey  43, 94, 103, 115

Delano  63, 101-2

Delaware  88, 184; Lord  52

Delegal  167

Delgado  167

Delieben  187

Delmar, Jorge  29

Demarest  89

D’Embrun/D’Ambrain see Dombrain

Demery  51

Demetres/Demetrius  167

Denis  155

Denmark  119, 153, 169, 178

Denne  187; see also Denney; Dennie

Denney/Denny  137, 155-57, 185

Dennie  185

Derbyshire  78

Dericksen  89

Descartes, Rene  84

D’Esmiers  154

Destemple  167

Deval  165

Deveaux/Devaux  146, 148, 167

Devereux, Robert 20, 21

Devon 11-12, 23

Dewes/Dews  114; see also Dues

Diamond/Dyamond  117

Dias/Diaz  14, 18, 21, 28, 31, 70, 116, 126, 147; Pedro 14

Dicer  70

Dick  184

Dickinson  184

Dieppe  17

Digby  162

Dinah  116

Dinana  120

Dingasey  117

Dionysus  175, 185

Disharone  126

DNA  11-12, 16, 26-27, 29, 31, 33, 35-38, 72-73, 137

DNA Consultants  38

Dobb  137

Dobree  184

Dod/Dodd  114, 178

Dody  67

D’Olbreuse  154

Dolen  137

Doll  121

D’Olier  152

Dombrain  152

Dooly/Dooley  167

Dorcas  79, 126

Doty  66

Douai  167

Doublehead  120

Doubt  67

Doudel  114

Dougherty  170

Dourado, Fernaõ Vaz  15

Douw/Dow/Dowe  100

Drake, Sir Francis  15-16, 23, 47-48, 144

Draper  115

Drayton  148

Drelincourt  152

Dresler  167

dress and costume  60, 104-105

Drexel/Drexler/Drechsler  120

Driver  119

Droz  152

Duarte  30

Dubnow, Simon  64

Dubourdieu  152

Duenkel  114

Dues  167

Duesen, van  100

Duffe/Duffey  134, 184

Duffua  117

Dull, Keith  114-15

Dullea  167

Dumas  67

Dundas  115

DuPont  103

Duppa, Thomas, Sir  179

Duran/Durant  28, 34, 170

Durie/Dury  89, 152

Dussen, van der  148

Dutch East India Company  39, 83-84

Dutch West India Company  39, 85-86

Dutcher  100

Duval  152

Duycking/Duyckinck   90, 98

Duyou  89

Duyts  89

Dyck, van  88, 94

dyestuffs  83-84, 148

Dyott  178

Eachus  116

Earl Marshall of England  186

Earle  135

Eason/Jason  53

Eastey/Esty  68, 70

Easton  79

Eaton  66, 69, 106

Ebbing  91

Ebenezer, Ga.  165

Edaliah/Edeliah  124

Eder  119

Edinburgh  160, 182

Edna  177

Eelckens  85

Egypt  174-75, 187

Eida  177

El Mer  67

Elahmi  174

Elam  137

Eleazar  112

Elfe  184

Eli see Ely

Elias  174

Elijah  174

Eliot/Elliott  57, 132, 167, 184, 187

Elizabeth I  9, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 51, 63

Elkanah  77, 85, 112

Ellam  174

Ellard  156

Ellery  187

Ellis/Elles  43, 127, 162, 167, 185

Elne  140

Elphinstone/Elphinston  112, 168, 182

Elsasser  114

Elslegal  117

Ely/Eli  54, 112

Eman  178

Emanuel  165

Emerson  185

Emery  67

Emes  185

emir  185

Emmanuel  50

Encyclopedia of Southern Culture  160

Endelmann, Todd  42

Endicott, John  60, 66

Engel/Engles  85, 113, 119

England  127

English  66

Enoch  176

Episcopalians  184, 186

Erouard  142

Eshleman, Henry Frank  114

Esselsteen  100

Essex  70, 77

Estes  68

Esther  72, 116, 119, 124, 164

Etalka  177

Ethel  177

Etter  119

Etting  42, 43

Eveleth  70

Eyck, ten  100

Eycott  168

Eyles  162

Eyseck  114

Fabian  113

Facey/Facy; 185; John  23

Facit see Fawcett

Faddes  116

Faesch  166, 185

Fagan  117

Fahie  167, 169

Fahm  166

Fahnestock  120

Falco/Falcon/Falconer  127, 179

Falk  43

Falkner/Faulkner  127

Fanu, Le  153

Fao  166

Farber, Eli  42

Farr  67

Farrah  128

Farrar  70

Farrett  90

Fasciculus Chemicus  179

Fassell  117

Fassi  14, 185

Fassit see Fawcett

Faure  108

Fausille  152

Fawcett 132

Feber  101

Febos/Febus  3, 32, 37, 168

Fedam  54

Feibus  115

Feisal  114

Fell  111

Ferdinando, Simon  14, 47

Fermoor  76

Fernandes  29

Feron  67

Ferrar/Ferry  52, 63, 113

Ferreby  171

Ferro  30

Fez  166, 168

Fezer  168

Fickling  147

Field  103

Fielder  119

Fiennes  75-76

Fiesel  114

Filoux  142

Finland  87

Firestone  103

Fischer, David Hackett  60

Fischer/Fisher  101, 166, 168

Fish  103

Flatow  166

Fleming  99

Flemish  83-91, 166

Flerl  166

Fletcher  66

Fleury  152

Flood  68, 177

Florence, Florentine  114, 117

Florentina  114

Flores  33, 36, 86, 170

Florida  36, 148, 166, 178

Florio  45

Flory  121

Flowers  50, 86, 115

Fludd  see  Flood

Folsom  185

Fonda  100

food  71, 98, 178

Fookes  134

Foote  69

Forbes  18, 37, 43, 103, 127, 182

Forbes, John & Co.  169

Ford  108

Forest, de  86, 90, 100, 103, 124

Foret , de la  146, 152

Forrentine  117

Fort Pickering  161

Fossett  see  Fawcett

Foucks  115

Fowle  168

Fox:  115, 162, 168, 178;  George  111

Foxley  135

France  143, 159-60, 180

Francis  155, 168

Franck  see  Frank

Francken  185

Franco  127

Frank/Franks  42,  92-93, 115-16, 127, 168; Solomon, rabbi 178

Frankeln  184

Frankfurt  166

Frankish  177

Franklin  43, 181, 184; Benjamin  186

Frantz  115

Fraser/Frazier  103, 168

Frederica, Ga.  167, 170

Frederick County, Md.  118-19

Freeman  51, 67, 127

Freemasonry  162, 173-89

Freitas, de  29

French Canadians  43-44

French/Frensch  78, 100, 115, 128, 185

Frenchmen  140-58, 161, 166, 178

Friedmann  127

Friends of God  114

Frisbey  133

Frise, de  1003

Frobisher, Martin  18-19

Frocis  165

Fry  67, 70

Fuchs  111, 113, 115, 134

Fulk  155

Gabay  41, 97

Gable/Gabel  168

Gabriel  119, 168

Gades  112

Gaeiss/Geiss  113

Gael  127

Gager  67

Gaillard  146

Gaither  128

Galas  168

Galche  168

Gale  127, 143

Gallais  143

Galloway  184

Galphin  168, 170

Galphin, Holmes & Co.  170

Galprin  168

Galwey  115

Gamage, John  20

Gamalise  117

Gambia  87

Gamelin  67

Gammon  117

Gandy  168

Gans see Ganz

Ganz:  113:  Joachim  12, 14, 47, 171

Garber  119

Garcia  34, 53

Gardiner/Gardner   66, 67, 68, 90, 100, 103

Gardines  67

Gare, Le  146, 163

Garland  79

Garret  134

Garvey  186

Gaskill  68

Gass  113

Gates, Sir Thomas  20, 51-52

Gaussen  152

Gedda  117

Geddes  117, 187

Geddy  186

Gee  67, 124

Geiger  146, 179

Geist  103

Gemma   21

Gemmel  113

Gendron  146

Geneste  152

Genoa  13, 18, 27

George  106

George II  148

George III  186

Georgia  159-72, 184, 236-49

Georgia Southern University  171

Gerber, Jane  25

Germans and Germany  83, 94, 112-21, 166, 168, 179

Gerritsen  89

Gersone  28

ghettoes  46, 64

Gibbs  168

Gideon  143

Gil  32

Gilbert:  106; Humphrey, Sir 13, 14, 23, 45

Gilde  97

Giles  66, 68

Gillon  147

Gilman  184-85

Gimbel/Gimble  91, 103

Girtee  117

Gist/Guest  58, 113, 129, 137-39, 171, 184, 188

Gitlitz, David  14

Givens  37

Glasick  113

Glass  108

Glasscock  178

Glasser  113

Glick  121

Gloucester  69-70, 105

Glover, Jose  63

Gnostics  175-76, 181, 184

Goar  171

Godfrey  134

Godyn  86

Goff/Goffe/Gough  66

Goins  37

Gold  112

Goldsborough  133

Goldsmith  124-25, 168, 185

Goldstone  67

Goldthwaite  68

Goldwire  168

Gomery  117

Gomez  34, 49, 92-93:  Luis Moses 92-93

Gomez Mill House  92

Gomez Robledo, Francisco  34

Gonson   18

Good  37, 71, 121

Goodale/Goodall  68, 80

Gooding  125

Goodman  43, 66

Goodwin  43

Gookin  53

Gording  126

Gordon  37, 43, 162, 168

Gorges  63

Gorman  184

Gosnold, Bartholomew, Capt.  51, 181

Goss  113, 152

Gosset  152

Goujon  143

Gould  68, 103

Gouldsmith 54

Gouverneur  98

Gower  171

Goya/Goyer  153

Gozzi  152

Grace  165

Gracey  116

Gracia  116, 137

Graeme  187

Graff, de  114

Graham  99

Granger/Grainger  134, 186

Granville   24, 171

Gratz  42, 137

gravestones  120-21

Grazillier  90

Great Seal of the United States  184

Great Wagon Road  150

Greece  119, 158

Greek names  155, 171

Green/Greene  47, 50, 91, 117, 124

Greenville/Greenfield  47

Gregg  43

Gregory  137

Grenville, Sir Richard  22-24

Greville  148

Grey   18; Lady Jane 21

Grice  51

Grimes  51, 57

Groen  91

Grootinhuis, ten  83

Gross/Grossman  72, 113

Grotius, Hugo  83

Grunau  166

Gually/Guale  153

Guanajatabeye Indians  29

Guanches  27

Guerard  146

Guerin  168

Guerry/Guerra  143

Guess/Guest see Gist

Guggenheim  53

Gugul  168

Guillot  153

Guindi/Gundi  166

Guindre  166

Guion  142

Guirard  168

Gulet/Goelet  98, 185

Gunter  166

Gur  113

Gurganus  53

Guthrie, James  38

Guyenne  141

Guyon  153

Guzman  32

Gypsies; see Romani

Haak  179

Haal  116

Habacki  117

Habersham  170, 184

Hackett  134

Hadrian  175

Haes  147

Haga  116

Hagar  114

Haggara  54

Hagger, Nicholas  180-81

Hague, The  90

Haim/Haym  54, 92

Hair  118

Hakluyt, Richard  14, 23, 45, 63

Hala  118

Halam  54

Hale/Heale.Hales  18, 37, 53, 67, 162

Halfbreeds  161

Hall  128

Haman/Hammann  113

Hamburg  42

Hamel  86

Hamer  133

Hamet  177

Hamilton  43, 115-16, 168:  Alexander  98

Hamlin  79

Hamm 168, 169

Hammon  114

Hammond  133

Hamon  124, 129, 153

Hamor 52, 54

Hancock  184

Hand  155

Hanel  88

Hanna  155

Hannah  50-51, 72, 79

Harad/Harrod  170

Harby  43

Hari/Harry  113

Harlan  125

Harlem, N.Y.  88-90

Harman  134, 162

Harmon  146

Harnett  186

Harriot, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Harris   3, 23, 53, 168, 170, 185; Leon 3

Hart   13, 42, 43, 70, 97, 113, 115, 118, 171, 184, 185, 186

Hartlib  178

Hartman  113, 119

Harvard College  81

Harvey, Dionys  14

Harwood  127

Hasbroucq  89

Hasell  117

Hasselaar  83

Hava  116

Havre, Le (French port)  17

Hawkes  70

Hawkins  15, 43, 170; Sir John  16-18, 144

Hay/Hays  42, 43, 91, 97, 113, 118, 124, 185

Hayak  179

Hayim  113, 135; see also Haim; Chaim

Hayman/Heyman  116

Hayms  54

Hayne  148

Hazard/Hasaret/Hassard  153, 168

Heard  168

Heathecote  97, 162

Heaton, Ronald F.  184

Heays  135

Hebrew  56, 62, 126-27, 132, 171, 174-75, 178, 179, 186

Hebron  79, 117, 127

Heinle  166

Helfenstein  166

Helmsley  135

Helvinstine  168

Hendricks  42, 94, 164

Henriques/Henriquez  41, 94, 128

Henry  42, 43, 58-59, 128:  Patrick 58-59

Henry VIII  9, 13, 17

Hepburn  127

heretic  114

Hermes Trismegistus  176, 179

Hernandez  28

Heron  168, 185

Heroy/Heouida  142

Herrera  33

Herrick  68

Hershey  119

Hertz  114

Hewes  47, 67

Hey see  Hay

Heyrman, Christine  69-72

Heysig  179

Hezron  77

Hibberd  116

Hibron  117

Hill  131, 134

Hilton  145

Hime  117

Hingham, Mass.  78

Hiram  134, 175

Hird  see  Heard

Hirsch  119, 168

Hirschman, Elizabeth Caldwell  182

Hite  57

Hoffman  91

Holiday  124, 133

Holland  100, 162, 184

Homans  67

Homem  67

Hood  127

Hoopes  116

Hopwell  126

Horn/Horne, (van)  68, 99, 100

Horry/Hori  143, 146

Horsmanden, Mary  55

Houston  37, 43

Howard  5, 43, 137

Howard, Sir Charles (admiral)  17

Howell  40, 103

Howland  102

Hucks  162

Hud/Hut  127

Hudde  83

Hudson  128, 148

Huffnagle  116

Huger  146, 163

Hughes  162; see also Hewes

Huguenot Society of America  149 

Huguenots  19, 29, 41, 52-54, 56, 68, 86-88, 91, 95, 99-100, 108, 114, 118, 140-58, 163, 166

Huldah  72

Hungar  85

Hungary  45, 85, 114

Hunt, (de la)  43, 125;  Robert, Rev.  51

Hurd  see Heard

Hussy  127

Hutchinson  66, 69, 87, 187

Hutto  146

Hyam/Hyams  117, 165

Hyatt/Hyett  57, 127

Hyman/Hymen  116, 117

Hynson  128

Ibanez  30

Iconoclasts  114

Idris  176

imam  178

Inabinet  146

India  85, 174

Indian traders  221-23, 234-35

Ingersoll  68

Inigo  178

I’on  168

Ioor  147

Irby  155

Irish  106, 149-50, 155, 167, 170

Iroquois Indians  58, 96

Isaac/Isaacs  91, 114, 128, 168, 179, 184

Isabella  99

Isacks  see  Isaacs

Isacksen  90

Ishmael  116, 174

Isle of Man  137, 187-88

Isles  162

Ismali Muslims  174

Israel  41, 113, 116, 154, 164, 169; Israel 184; see also Ben Israel

Issachar  100, 116

Italian names  155, 163, 164

Itta  176-77

Izard  148

Izman  168

Jabel  175

Jabez  67

Jachin  179, 184

Jackson  43

Jacob/Jacobs  50, 51, 54, 68, 71, 83, 87-88, 97, 99, 113, 116, 118, 128, 167

Jacobeans  181

Jacobs, Joseph  3, 25

Jacoby  121

Jacome  29

Jadwyn  124

Jael  112, 134

Jafar  67

Jamaica  47, 91, 95, 146

James  147

James IV  183

Jamestown  51-53, 185

Jamison  185

Jappie  117

Jaquett  184

Jarvis  67

Jasper  106

Jay  91, 103;  John 184

Jeanneret  168

Jeansack  168

Jefferson, Thomas  73, 106, 181

Jeffries  67

Jekabs  87

Jemboy  51

Jemima  128, 139

Jenkinson  125

Jerald  67

Jewish Publication Society  186

Jews:  anti-Catholicism  64-65, 184; Ashkenazi  38, 43, 68, 92-93, 100, 112-3, 143, 164, 166, 189; Caribbean  40-42; diaspora of 14, 45-46, 98, 128-29, 184, 189;  Dutch  83-85, 100, 125, 179; Egyptian  128-29, 175-76; expulsions 7-9, 13, 21, 45-46, 69, 64, 84, 140-41, 189; in finance 9, 11, 21, 23, 51, 72, 91, 103, 160, 165, 174, 186; in Freemasonry 173-89; French 25, 54, 100, 140-41, 189; in London 141, 159, 164; naming practices 3, 66, 68, 77, 91, 113-14, 116, 128, 142, 174, 191-200; as merchants 1-2, 9, 39, 55-57, 64, 72, 85-91, 98; Moroccan 13; numbers 26, 44, 148; occupations  41, 52, 63, 90-91, 108-9, 118, 171, 174; as physicians  41, 135, 154, 178; rituals 68, 86, 91, 111, 174, 177-78, 201-2; Roman 26, 91, 141; secularization, 132; Semitic  38; Sephardic 25-27, 39-40, 43, 46, 64, 68, 128-29, 164, 166-67, 189, 192-200

Jimenez  34

Jirael  117

Joachime  90

Joder  see  Yoder

Johnson  43, 115, 168, 169

Johnson, Ben  180

Johnston  51, 96

Jones  51, 124; George F. 166; Inigo 178

Jordan  53

Josephus  41

Jouet  143

Jouneau  142

Journee  89

Jubel  175

Judah  124, 126

Judd  117

Judea  116

Judith  72, 177, 178

Juiman  54

Juliana  135

Jump  125

Juneau  97

Junia  67

Kalonymos  197

Kalteisen  146

Kammer  118

Kane  134

Kaph  112

Kapp  113

Karel  83

Karsens  89

Kaskaskia  160

Kast  67

Katz  90, 113

Kauffmann/Kaufman  119

Kay, (de)  91, 97, 168

Keene  185

Keeton  137

Kelkta  100

Kelly, Edward  179

Kelpius  114

Kendall, George  51

Kennedy  37, 43, 124, 137, 168

Kentucky  136-37, 186

Kettering  119

Keulon, van  84

Keymis, Lawrence  15

Keziah  126

Khazars  114

Khori/Cori  71

Kibbey  68

Kierside  90

Kimberling  119

King  113, 116, 119, 184

King David’s Lodge  187

Kinloch  147

Kinser  119

Kintz  113

Kissam  94

Klein  119

Kline  118-19

Kniffen  100

Knox, John  110

Kocherthal  101

Koenig  113, 119

Koger  137

Koons/Kuntz  100, 113, 118, 121

Koppel  68, 114

Krohn/Kron  113, 118-19

Kronenshelt  67

Kronin  113

Kugel  168

Kuhn  113, 115, 119

Kunst  101

Kuntz  see  Koons

Kupferstein, von  32

Kuykendal  146

LaBadie  179

LaBarree, Benjamin  65

Labat/Labatt  19, 41, 43, 153

Labon  43, 168

Lacy  178

Laet, de  86

Lafayette  184

LaFon  91

Lago  111

Lagrange  100

Lamb  127

Lambert  73

Lameth  175

Lancelot  80

Lane, Ralph  23, 47

Langlais  150

Langley  43, 153

Lansing  98

L’Apostre  162

Lareux  125

Laroche  see  Roche

Larochefoucauld  153

Lasse  117

Lassell/Lazel  128

Latrobe  184

Latvia  87

Laudonniere  46

Lauer  113

Laughman  121

Laurens  146

Laurent  91

Laval, de  151

Lavalade, de  151

Lavender, Abraham  140

Law:  John 159-60

Lawne  53

Lawrence  99

Lawson  43

Layard/Layarde, de  153

Laybon  see  Labon

Laydon, John  51

Laykan  117

Lea  184

Lea/Leah  116, 119, 126

Leal  33

Leavitt/Levet  54, 67, 76-80

Lebo/Leebow  161

Lebon  168

Leda/Ledah  124

Ledesma  165

Lee  56-58, 99, 184; Richard, II  57

LeFebre  89

Lefferts  98

Leflore/Lefleur  170

Lefroy/Leffroy  153

Legare  see  Gare

Legendres  163

Leghorn  27, 87, 129, 153

LeGuidon, Ormus  173

Leiden  51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 90, 126

LeMere  178

LeNoir  112

Leon, de  164, 166, 168

LeRoy  87, 89, 100

LeSage  161, 169

L’Escury, de  151

Lesher  100

Leslie  37, 170

LeSueur  89

Levan  113

Levandt  113

Levant Company  19

Lever/Levor/Levot  146

Leverett  69

Levet see Leavitt

Levi   14, 19, 54, 80, 97, 99, 113, 116, 128, 184; see also Levy

Levin  126

Levina  116, 132

Levinus  98

Levirate law  21, 127, 133, 136, 154

Levis  116

Levy  115, 118, 164-65, 187; Asser  42

Levyans  54

Lewers  113

Lewis  43, 132, 168, 170, 184, 185, 187

Lichfield  173-74

Lilly  177

Lincoln  84;  Abraham  79, 84

Lindo  147, 148

Lines/Lion  168

Lion  see  Leon; Lyon; Lines

Lippy  119

Lisbon  98

Liske  53

Lithuania  87, 148, 189

Little/Little  121, 162

Littler  174

Livingston/Livingstone  96-100, 103, 184, 185

Livorno  see  Leghorn

Lloyd  43, 135

Loackermanns  91

Lobato  153, 169

Locke, John  84, 145

Lodwick  96

Loew  see  Low

Logan  146

Logier  153

Lok/Louk/Locke   19, 84, 91

Lollards  114

Lombards  163

Lombe  163

Long  170

Long Island   134

Looney  37, 137, 187-88; Moses 187

Lopez  34, 42, 164; Rodrigo, Dr.  9, 51

Lopez de Mendizaval, Bernardo  34

Lora/Lohra/Loray/

Lore  113

Lorich/Lorich/Lorig  146

Lott  94

Louis XIV  160

Louisiana  160

Lourdes  146

Loureiro  29

Lovel  186

Lovelace/Loveless  137

Lovelin  127

Lovina  79

Low/Lowe/Loew/Loewe  80, 113, 128, 168, 169, 170

Lowell  80-81, 103, 185

Lowrey/Lowry  118

Luca  91

Lucas  89, 146, 148

Lucena  97, 165

Lucero  34

Lucke  117

Lucretia  50

Ludlow  97

Ludolph  178

Lula  155

Lumbee Indians  50, 51

Luna   18, 34, 35, 112, 137, 187

Lunel  140

Luria/Lurie  113, 118

Lutherans  42, 112-14, 166, 217-21

Lydia  77, 116, 118, 171

Lydius  94

Lynn, Mass.  70

Lyon/Lyons  42, 118, 164; Moses 42

maaseh  128

Mabel  116

Mace  124

Machado  29, 164

Machir ben Habibai  25, 76, 140-41

Mackay  170

MacKuen  170

Macon  186

Madagascar  100

Madariega, Salvador de  8

Madeiras  29, 95

Magalotti  178

Magellan  29

magic  20, 22, 175-76, 179

Magnon  91

Magus of Freemasonry, The  173

Mahaffa  154

Mahallah  154

Mahzig  143

Maimonides  181

Mainwaring  174

Makhir  see  Machir

Makissack  185

Malacca  84

Malea  161

Malka, Jeffrey  39

Mangin  154

Manigault  146, 163

Mann  43

Manner  127

Mannheim  88-89

Mansel/Mansell  124

manufactures  52, 144, 151, 163

Marat  56

Marcer  168

Marcus  128

Marcus, Jacob R. 41-42

Mare  186

Marest see Demarest

Mariah  112

Marie Antoinette, queen of France  177

Marin  30

Marino  170

Marion  146

Maris  116

Marius  91

Marks/Marx  91, 117, 171

Marquez/Marques  91

Marranos  1, 27, 41, 63, 70, 86-91, 95, 179; see also Conversos

Marseilles  170, 185

Marsh/Marshman  70, 134

Marshall  116, 184

Martin  43, 119, 185

Martineau  142

Martinez  34

Martyn  162, 168

Maryland  123-39, 167, 223

Masicq/Mazyck  143, 163

Mason, George  55

Massa/Masse/Massey  128-29

Massachusetts  60-82, 212-16; Freemasons 185

Massachusetts Bay Colony  66

Massey  116, 124, 128-31

Maszig  100

Mather  67

Mathy  154

Matson  96-97

Matthysen  89

Mau  85

Mauer  113

Maule  70, 71

Maurer  114

Maurice   20, 85, 91

Maurits  90

Maxey  129

May/Mays  62, 85, 121, 124

Maycock  53

Mayden  89

Mayow  117

Mazieres  154

Mazza  129

McAbee  37

McBean  168

McBlair  43

McCowen  118

McDermott, James 48

McDonald  188

McEvers  100

McGillivray  168

McKee  170

McMillan  125

McQueen  170

Mead  100

Mears  42, 168

Medina  32

Meeks  157

Meir  21, 94, 97, 168

Melle, de  29

Mellon  103

Melungeons  17, 23, 36-39, 51, 54, 72-72, 81, 119, 136, 161, 167, 170, 172

Memphis  160-61

Mendenhall  184

Mendez  32, 73, 169, 184

Mendoza  46, 84

Mennonites  114

Menoah  171

menorah  179

Mercier  154

Mercury  179

Mesick/Messick  100

Mesquita, de  169

messiahs, false  47

Messier  90

Mestayer/Metayer/

Matityah  143

mestizo  33

Mettauer  119

Mexico  33-34

Meyer, de  88

Meyer/Meyre, (de)  89, 97

Michael/Michaels  42, 43, 168

Michel  168

Michener  116

Michie  147, 187

Mickve Israel Congregation  184

Microcosmus Hypochondriacus  179

Miles   18

Millam/Millim  168

Miller  40, 134

Milton, Giles  48

Minelly/Minelli  128

mining  11-13, 47, 171

Minis  168, 170

Minor/Mainor  50

Minter  65

Minuit, Peter  87

minyan  124

Mira  116-17

Mirabal  32

Mirfin  77

Miriam  72, 81

Mississippi  160

Mitchell  43, 148

Moesman  88

Moffat  100

Mohammed  177, 179

Moises/Moyshe  54, 178

Molina  40

Money  133

Monfort  166

Moniac/Monaque  170

Monroe  184

Monroux, de  178

Montagne  88-89

Montagu  148

Montaigut  168

Montana/Montanha  88

Montbrai  186

Montel  41

Montesinos  32

Montfort, Simon de  140

Montgomery  146

Montgomery, Ala.  170

Moon  112

Moor, (de)  86, 113, 162

Moore  37, 43, 127, 131, 146, 148, 177, 185

Mooser  113

Mophat  see  Moffat

Moravians  166

Moray  178

Mordecai/Mordechai  42, 128, 131, 164-65, 170, 186

More  65, 108

Moreau  54, 100

Morell/Morrel  154, 168

Moreno  42, 114

Morgan  37, 103

Morgenstern  114

Moriscos  7, 9, 14,  17, 21, 24, 30, 46, 52, 110, 124, 126, 132, 144, 154

Moro District  161

Morocco  68, 90, 106, 177-78, 185

Morrey  186

Morris  96-100, 117:  Gouverneur  96-97; Robert  74, 165

Morrison  37, 43, 170

Mosco  49

Mosell  85

Moser  113, 116

Moses  113, 117, 118, 164, 177-78

Moshe  116

Mosquera/Mosquero  31

Moss  117

Mosser  113

Mott  184

Motta, de la  164, 187

Motte  146, 164

Motteair  168

Moulin  54

Moulton  184

Mournier  143

Mowbray  186

Muche  100

Muir  162, 186

mulattoes  125

Mullica  117

Munich  170

Muniz  32

Murer  118

Murfree  186

Murhead  113

Murr  113

Muscovy Company  19, 22

Musgrove, Mary  164

musicians  13, 55, 153, 185

Musick  143

Muslims:  in England 11, 177-79; expulsion from Spain 8, 178, 189; in Freemasonry, 173-89; practices  68, 110, 182, 202-203

mustee  170

Muttear  168

Myers, Myer  94, 100, 121, 186

Naar/Narr  41

Nairne  170

Naphthali  113

Napier  177

Narbonne  25, 35, 110, 140-42

Nash  134

Nashville  171

Nasi  140-41

Natchez Indians  160

Nathan  118

Native Americans  38-39, 48-49, 52, 57, 63, 85, 96, 117-18, 144-45, 161

Navarre  141, 179

Nave  188

Neale  186

Negos  179

Negroes  167

Neoplatonism  181

Neu  168

Nevis  146, 169

New  168

New Atlantis  180

New Hampshire  69, 77, 185

New Jersey  182, 184; Freemasons 185

New Madrid  160

New Mexico  34-36, 45

New Netherland and New Amsterdam  83-91, 95, 98, 117

New York:  Freemasons 185

Newberry  37, 43, 70

Newbury, Mass.  80

Newce, William, Sir  53

Newhouse  43

Newman  43

Newport  49, 51

Newport, R.I.  42

Ney  37

Nicasius  106

Nichols  43, 171

Nihil/Nile  117

Nimes  154

No, De la   19, 63, 91, 97

Noah  63, 155, 175

Noble/Nobel  43, 74, 168

Nochem  85

Noel  66

Nooms  85

Norfolk, Duke of  186

Normand/Norman  154

Norris   20, 70, 99, 116

North Augusta, S.C.  162

North Carolina  50-51, 137, 184; Freemasons 185-86

Norton, John, Rev.  63, 69

Norwood  70

Nova Caesarea  185

Novum Organum  180

Noyes  71

Numar  134

Numus Graecus  175

Nunes/Nunez  21, 28, 164, 170, 184

Nurse  70

Oaks  42

Ober  68

Oblinus, van  89

Occaneechi Indians  50; Trail 186

Oceanus  66

Ocosand  54

octoroon  160

Odell  128

O’Farrill, Jose Richardo  30

Ogden  99, 185

Oglethorpe, James  162, 184

OHassan  117

Ohio Company  58

Ohr  113

Olive  74

Oliver  80

Olivera/D’Oliveria  29, 147

Orange  140, 149, 151, 178

oranges; see citrus

Order of the Knights of the Helmet  179-80

Orpha  116, 155

Ortellius, Abraham  15

Os, van  83

Oseas/Osias  116

Osgood  70

Osorio, de  31

Ostenaco  188

Otis  184

Otmar  118

Ottey  174

Ottolenghi  163, 168

Ottoman Empire  2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 67, 90, 119, 145, 188

Ouizman  161

Oxford University  154, 173

Paca  124

Pace  53

Pache  124

Pacheco  98

Page/Pages  51, 57, 161, 168

Pagit/Paget  174

Paine, Thomas  73-75

Palatinate  100-1, 114, 118, 146, 166, 178

Palestine  154

Pamunkey Indians  51

Panther-Yates, Donald N.  163

Pantoja  32

Panton, Leslie & Co.  169

Papin  91

Papists  69

Papo/Papot  91, 168

Paracelsus  179

Pardo  32, 41, 144, 187

Paris  160, 168

Parisis  88

Parker  70, 137

Parmenas  125

Parmenius, Stephen  14, 45

Parmentier  89

Parmley  137

Parquet/Parke  40, 56

Parrat  124

Parret  132

Parris  68, 71, 146

Parrot  133

Parry  168

Paterson/Patterson  184, 185

Patey  128

Patte  106

Paulet  179

Paulicians  114

Paun  83

Pavey  168

Pavia  168

Pavo  128

Pavoncello  128

Pawley  147

paynim  173

Peach/peaches  128, 164

Peacock  128, 179

Pedroe  117

Peiser  91

Pelgrom  85

Pell  184

Pena  45

Penn, William  104-110, 121

Pennock  116

Pennsylvania  104-22, 166, 217-23; Freemasons  186; Lancaster 42

Pensacola  169

Pepe/Pepi  177

Pepin II  177

Pepin the Older  177

Pepper  112

Pepys  177

Percival  80, 162

Percy  51

Pereira  29, 103

Perez  28, 68

Perkins  78

Perla  165

Perrin  154

Perry  37, 51, 53, 66, 96, 146, 170, 184

Perryman  170

Persian  79-80, 83, 88, 113, 126, 128, 174

Persis  79

Petit  41

Petman  47

Petrie  100

Peyre  146

Peyster, de  98, 100, 103

Peyton  184

Phar  67

Pharabus  171

Pharez  68

Pharrow  112

Phartouat  29

Philadelphia  41-42, 115, 117-18, 161

Philip/Philips  see  Phillips

Philipse see Phillips

Phillipini  171

Phillippi  113, 119

Phillips   2-3, 17, 18, 42, 43, 94-96, 103, 115, 127, 128, 132, 164, 168

Phillipse see Phillips

Philliptenia  119

Philpot, John  21

Phipps  137

Phoebe  171

Phoebus  115

Phoenicians  11-12, 25, 28, 33, 73

phoenix  179

Picards  186

Pickett, Albert James  170

Piercey, Abraham  52

Pierpoint  53

Pierry  118

Pigod  186

Pigues/Piggs  147

Pincas/Pinhas  174

Pinckney  146, 148

Pinket/Pinquet  174

pirates and privateers  8, 13, 15, 31, 48, 90, 95

Pires  29

Pitts  72

Place  168

Plancius/Planck, ver  84, 97

Plese  100

Plessy  168

Plymouth  11, 18, 106

Plymouth Company  65

pogroms  140-41, 166

Pogue  41

Polak  41

Poland  51, 148, 189

Polish  90, 97, 121, 162, 165, 179

Polk  41

Pollard  178

Polock  97

Ponte/Ponto   18

Pontington  130-31

Poole  53

Pooley  53

Pope  184

Poppin  83

Porcher  146

Port, du  152

Portuguese  124, 141, 155

Pory, John  52, 63

Powell  53

Powers  37, 76

Pratt  162

Presto  89

Price  43, 185

Pricoleau  146

Priest  66

Prince/Printz  70, 79, 90, 185

Pringle  147, 186

Prise  117

Proctor  70

Protestants  9, 17, 19, 21, 41, 75, 86, 104-22, 141, 170

Provence  140

Puerto Rico  31-32

Pulitzer  103

Purdy  100

Purnell  132

Purrysburgh  120, 146, 165-67, 169

Putnam  70, 71: Israel 184

Pyncheon  66, 99

Pysdry  90

Pythagorean  184

quadroon  170

Quakers  42, 68, 70-73, 104-22, 125, 131, 139, 171-72:  meeting house 74

Queen Anne  115

Raboteau  154

Racial Exclusionary Act of 1790  3

Rackliffe  132

Rae  168

Rafael  128

Rain/Raines  126, 155

Raina  154

Rainsborough   106

Raisen/Rasin  126-27

Raleigh, Sir Walter  10, 12-15, 22, 23, 47

Ralph/Rafe  128

Rambo/Rambeaux  117

Ramey  54

Ramirez  32

Rand  67

Randolph  184

Rangel  32

Raphael   23, 155, 168

Rappe  143

Rasieres, de  85-86

Rassin  143

Rast  146

Rastell  106

Ratcliffe, John, Capt.  51

Rattier  91

Rattling Gourd, Daniel  188

Ravel  41

Ravenel  146

Rawlins  146

Raymond  153, 168; see also Reymond

Rayner, John  63

Re  142-43

Rea/Ray  68, 118; see also Rae; Rhea

Read/Reed/Reade  132-33

Reason  128

Rebecca  177

Redheaded Will, chief  188

Reform Judaism  158

Regreny  142

Reintzel  184

Reis  168

Remi  54

Remsen  98

Renssalaer, van  86, 90, 99

Reseaux  142

Reson  88

Reupel  94

Revere, Paul  67, 184, 185

Revil  50

Rey  168

Reyes  30

Reymond/Raimund/Raymond   47, 68, 168

Reyne  126, 155

Reynet, de  154

Reynolds, Joshua, Sir  188

Rezin  171

Rezio  169

Rhea  185

Rhett  147

Rhoda  116, 171

Rhode Island  87, 106, 186-87

Rhodes/Roads  112, 116

Ribault  144

Rice  43, 137

Richards  53

Rickman  73

Riddell  142

Ringgold  124

Ringo  91

Rittenhouse  74

Rive, La  153

Roanoke colony  14, 19, 47-51, 144

Robbins/Robins  132-33

Robena  112

Roberson/Robeson  171

Robertson  171

Robin   20

Robinet  143

Robinson  43, 65, 102, 171, 133

Robles  41

Roby  67

Rocca  162

Roche, de la  41, 153, 162, 168

Rochelle, La  17, 29, 91, 142-43, 146, 150

Rockefeller  103

Roderick  54

Rodrigo de Triana  8

Rodriguez de Matos, Don Francisco  34

Rodriguez/Rodrigues  28, 54

Roelfsen  90

Rogers  43

Roman  116

Romani  39, 160, 162, 203-4

Romeyn  91

Romig/Romich  116

Roosevelt  98, 101-3

Rosa  29, 133

Rose  101, 116, 126

Roseanna  132

Rosenfeld  98

Rosicrucians  179-80

Rosman  100

Ross  133-34, 147, 170

Roth  133

Roth, Cecil  47, 140

Rotterdam  97, 99, 108

Rouen  17, 89, 143, 144, 152

Rouse  128

Roussall  132

Royal Society (England)  178, 181

Rubel  94

Rubin, Saul Jacob, rabbi  166, 184, 236

Ruch, Benjamin  74

Rudisill/Rudisell  119

Ruhammah, Ammi  69

Ruine, de  89

Ruock  134

Rupp, I. Daniel  101

Russell  42, 43, 164, 170

Russia  148, 178

Rutgers  98

Rutsen  100

Ruvigny, de  151

Ryan  137

Ryser  85

Sabra  124, 133

Sachs/Sax  168

Sack  161, 168

Saenger  120

Safed  116

Safred  116

Sage  161

St. Albans  175

St. Augustine, Fla.  48, 144, 148

St. Clair  183, 184

St. Croix  98

St. Julian, de  167

St. Kitts (Christopher)  146, 168, 169

St. Leger/St. Leger   13, 55-56

Saintee  125

Saladin/Saladine  113, 116

Salas  31

Salee, van/Sallee  90, 137

Salem  71, 117

Salle  143

Salme  119

Saloman  165; Haym  42, 184

Salome  117

Salter  186

Saltonstall  66

Salvador  147, 158, 164

Salzburgers 165-67, 170

Sammes  162; see also Semmes

Sammis  88

Sampson  66, 79

Sams  148

Samuel/Samuels  134, 177

Sanchez  34

Sanco  174

Sand Mountain  187

Sanders  51, 94

Sanderson, William  14

Sands  52

Sandt, van  134

Sandusky  137

Sandys, Edwin, Sir  52, 63

Sanftleben  166

Sangree  113

Sankey  174

Santa Elena Colony  144

Santen  97

Sarazia  54

Sarfati  39

Sargent  81

Sassin  54

Sassoon  54, 177

Saul/Saull/Sall  117, 177, 184

Saunders  134

Sausssure, de  146

Savage  185

Savannah  184

Savell  67

Saville   19, 20

Savoy  178

Savoy  54

Saxe-Coburg  154

Saxony  178

Saye and Sele, Lord  69, 75-76; see also Fiennes

Saylor  37

Sayre  103

Scandinavians  83

Schaack, van  96, 102

Schaffer  184

Schenk, Leon  159

Scheretz  113

Schermerhorn  100

Schmael  116

Scholl  121

Schollay  185

Schorr  148

Schrag  119

Schrock  119

Schubrein  166

Schuelermann  118

Schuneman  101

Schure, van der  106

Schuyler  94-96

scientists  178-80

Scotland  99, 160, 182, 188

Scots-Irish  36, 38, 121, 146-47, 150, 171-71

Scott  51, 125, 127, 137

Scottish  98, 123, 165-66, 169-71, 185

Scribner  51

Secundus  178

See  119

Sefer Yetzirah  179

Seixas  154, 164, 187

Selitha  126

Sella  175

Sem  83

Semah  83

Semmes  100, 124; see also Sammes

Senior  169

Sequeira  164

Sequoyah  137-38

Seriah  79

Sevier  171, 184

Seymour   11

Shadlock   68

Shahan  132

Shakespeare, William  179

Shardlow  108

Sharick  117

Sharon  126

Sharp  133, 137

Sharpless  117

Shaw  43, 168

Shawnee Indians  120

Sheaffe  100

Shearith Israel, Congregation  93, 103

Sheeley/Schiele  146

Sheftall  165, 168, 184

Shelton  59, 171

Shem  67, 83, 167, 175

Shem Tov  174

Shepard/Sheppard  67, 170

Sherause/Sherouse  168

Shered  155

Sheriff  154, 168

Shiekell  117

Shilleman  118

Shin  112

Shippen  186

ships  55, 94-95, 98, 100, 166, 170:  Abraham 54; Alice 54; Anne 162; Ark 123; Ark Royale 17; Bonaventure 54; The Charming Martha 161; David 54; Dorothy 23; Dove 123; Dragon 72; Elizabeth  23, 54; Gilded Otter 88; Globe 54; Golden Hind 15; Happy Return 132; Henry and Francis 182; Judith 15; King of Prussia 73; Lion 23; Lydia 118; Mayflower  60, 65, 69, 79, 106; Revenge 24; Roebuck 23; Sea Venture 52; Supply 53; The Swan and the Pasha 15; The Seaman’s Secrets 15; Tiger 23

Shirley  63, 96

Shoeck  100

Shore  54

Shubael  66

Shuler  146

Sibyl/Sybilla  101, 126, 171

Siddon/Sidon  117

Sidney:  Philip, Sir  20, 21; Robert (earl of Leicester)  19-20

Sijmen  85

Silesia  166, 170

silk  57, 112, 163-64

Silva/Sylva  47, 86, 90, 124, 146

Silveira  29

Silver  112

Simcha  127

Simcock/Simcocks  109, 127

Simmon  100

Simmons  124, 146

Simon   12, 85, 113-14

Simpson/Simson  42, 43, 132

Sinaia  155

Sinclair  76, 79, 170

Singer/Singar  117

Sinn  113

Sizemore  37

Skene  173, 180, 182-83

Skidmore  134

slaves  28, 30, 31, 41, 48, 55, 66, 94, 98, 162

Slingerland  100

Sliterman/Sluijterman  168

Sloper  162

Slot  89

Sly/Slye  125

Smith  137, 162: John, Capt.  49-51, 181

Sneden  89

Snyder  119

Soderland, Jean R.   109

Solamona  181

Solomon  97, 113, 117-18, 175-77, 179

Solomon’s Builders  184

Solomon’s Lodge #1  184

Somerset  80

Sonntag  113

Sotheby  132-33

Soto, de  32-34, 70, 118, 134, 144, 193

Soule  66

Sousa/Souza  29

South America  83, 86

South Carolina  98, 140-58, 163-64, 167, 184, 224-35

South Sea Bubble  159-60

Southampton  11, 63

Southbe  132

Southell  148

Spanhauer  113

Spanheim  178

Spanish Inquisition  7-9, 14, 18, 34, 45-46, 89, 111, 113, 140-42, 165

Spann  171

Sparks  170

Specker  118

Speculum Sophicum Rhodostauroticum  179

Speelman  85

spice trade  83

Spielmann  52

Spielmann  85

Spinoza, Benedict de  84

Spotswood, Alexander  59

Sprague  67

Spranger  86

Springer  70

Sproule  185

Spyker  118

Staats  97, 99

Stacey  72

Staeck  89

Stark  185

Starkey  96

Starr, Jehosophat  184

Steel(e)  43

Steffey  119

Stegge, Thomas, Capt.  55

Steinman  117

Stephens  162

Stern, Malcolm, rabbi  43-44, 167

Sterner  121

Stewart  37, 43, 168, 170, 184; see also Stuart

Stiles  184

Stille  117

Stobo  148

Stoever  112-13

Stofell  134

Stone  178

Stoner  121

Stonesfer  121

Storer  155

Story  43, 66, 155

Stuart  181, 185

Stuckey/Stucki  118

Stukeley  47

Stultheus, Elias  160

Stuyvesant, Pieter  87, 92

Suasso  164

Suddarth  155

sugar  27, 30, 55, 66, 98, 169

Suire/Sueiro  91

Surinam  178

surnames:  aliases 39, 89; American Jewish  41-44; English  2-3, 14; etymology of 3, 129; Greek 14, 21, 26, 119, 124-25; Jewish 3, 8, 14, 16, 38, 65-66; in Sangre Judia 14; Melungeon  36-37, 161, 169-70; Moroccan 63, 146, 178; Muslim 2, 11, 31, 54; Norman 4, 12-13, 20, 57, 80, 148, 153, 174, 186; Sephardic 3, 14, 29, 33, 43, 192-200; Turkish 89, 111, 113, 116-18, 127

Surry County, Va.  185

Sussan  54

Susseny  119

Swabians  166

Swamp  118

Swan  185

Swanson  117

Swasey  68

Swedish  29, 86, 90, 117-18, 178

Sweet  51, 68, 81

Swerene  178

Swiss  114-15, 119-20, 165-67

Switzer  121

Sylva Sylvarum  180

Sylvester  68

Syme/Symes  58, 162

Symonds  68

Syng  186

Syria  116, 174

Taaffe  117

Tabbs  124

Tabitha  126, 128, 155

Tagger/Tajer  142

Taine/Tayne/Toynie  87-89

Taino Indians  29, 31

Talbot  187

Taliaferro  164

Talley  37

Tamar  66, 111

Tamberlane/

Tamarlane  126

Tamer  116

Tangier  91

Tankersley  37

Tannatt  169

Tanneke  88

Targe  142

Tartre  54

tau  134

Tauth/Toth  113

Tauvron  143

Tavares  29

Tavares/Tavarez  143

Tawwey  134

Tay, du  142

Taylor  126

Taylor, Alan  136

Telfair  164-65; Museum of Art  164

Templars  173-74, 180, 186

Temple  68, 76, 116, 167

Tench  135

Tennant  169

Tennessee  136-37, 161

Terck  116

Terrin  89

Terry  50

tetragrammaton  179

Teulon/Tholan  154

Teunis  91

Thau  113

Theiis  146

Tholon  154

Thomas  117

Thomas, James Walter  123

Thompson  43

Thorius  154

Thoth  184

tikkun olam  181

Tilghman  133-36

Tilley  66

Tillotson  124-25

Timmerman  117

Timothy  146

Tingell  126

Tishell  117

Titus  116

Tizack  117

Toaes  128

tobacco  55, 123, 160

Tobago  86-87

Tobias  147

Toccoa  154

Toeni, de  89

Tomes  168

Tondee/Tondie  168, 184

Tonti  168

Toohy/Touhey  53, 70, 134

Tookey  70

Tool  118

Toomer  186

Toro  148, 154

Torres  28

Tough  112

Toule  118

Toulon  141

Toulouse  140-41, 152, 154

Tourneir  89

Tov  117, 121

Tovey/Tawey  134

Toweison, William  19

Tower  162

Town & Country 103, 216-17

Town/Towne  70

Trachsel see Troxell

Tradescant  178

transcendentalism  82

tree of life  179

Tremayne   23

Tremi  89

Treutlin  166

Trevas  54

Trobe, La  153

Trower  126

Troxell  119, 120, 121

Truan/Trujan  168

Trujillo  34

Trustees of Georgia  163

Tryon  186

Tuch/Tuchmann  185

Tuckey  185

Tukey  185

Tulliere, du  88

Tumar  186

Tunisia  89, 91, 106, 155

Tupper  185

Turck  101

Turks  11, 39, 54, 68, 90, 106, 116; see also Ottoman Empire
spies and espionage  9, 19, 179

Turnepenny, Zachary  178

Tuscany  178

Tuscarora  Indians  50

Tuscher  118

Twisleton  76

Tyne  69

Tyre  69

Union Society  185

Unselt  166

Urgel  140

Usselinx  90

Utz  121

Uzes  140

Uziel  89

Uzille  89-90

Valentine  42, 43, 113, 184

Valleau  142

Van der Zee, James  90

Van/Vann  170, 188

VanBibber /Van Bebber  125

VanBrugh  185

Vanderbilt  103

Vanderpool  155

VanWyck  185

Varenne, de  150

Vashti  154

Vasquez  31, 144

Vassall  66

Vaughn  137

Vaux  89

Vaz/Vass  41

Vee  91

Velazquez, Diego  30

Venice  178

Venn  66

Verelst  162, 163

Vermeille  88

Vermillion  112

Vernon  162

Verral  74

Verveelen  88

Victoria, queen of Great Britain  154, 177

Vidau  54

Vigil  34

Villareal  31

Vincent/Vincente  143

Viola  119

Violette  138

Virginia  45, 46-59; Freemasons  184, 187; lists of immigrants  204-12

Virginia Company  12, 20, 51-53

Vizard  134

Vlatfoete  84

Voeux, des  151

Vogel  85, 168

Vogullar, Abram  29

Vriedman  127

Vries, de  41, 86, 95

Waldensians  114

Waldman, Felicia  175-76

Wali  112

Wall Street  92

Wallen/Walden  37, 50

Walley  112

Wallis  162

Walloons  41, 53, 62, 87-91, 114, 181

Walsingham, Sir Francis  19, 21

Walton, Izaak  178

Wampler  37, 118-19

Wannamaker  146

Ward   11, 136, 184

Wardell/Wardwell   68, 70

Wardlaw  146

Warner  184, 185

Warren  184, 185

Warrenton, N.C.  185

Warwick  78

Washam  132

Washington  58, 135; George  183, 184

Watauga  136, 161, 171

Waterman  187

Waters  106

Watie  188

Watson  43

Way  168

Webber  188

Weise  161

Welcome  41

Welsh  66, 147

Wesley  99

West  43, 77, 99, 162

West Country gentlemen  10-12, 14, 54

Weston  61, 63

Wexler, Paul  25

Whaley  146

Wharton  178

Whipple  187

Whitaker, Alexander, Rev.  52

White  43, 161, 170, 187; John 49-51

Whitehead  43

Whitehead, Alfred North  139

Whitney  179

Wickes/Wicks  134

Widdos  116

Wiesenthal, Simon  1-2, 8

Wiggans  see Wiggins

Wiggins  50, 168

Wild  147

Wilder  65

Willey  134

William II  149

William III  85

William the Conqueror  4, 76, 129

Williams  43, 50, 51, 68, 187

Wilmer  127

Wilson/Wilsen  43, 85

Wingate  134

Wingfield, Edward  51

Winston  58

Winthrop, John  60, 66

Wise  69, 155, 161, 168, 184

Wiseman  53

witchcraft  70-72, 78

Wizgan  168

Wolf/Wolff/Wolfe  37, 97 , 113, 118-19

Wood  43, 47

Woodward  145-46, 185

Wool  185

Woolley  99

Worrell  126

Wragg  148

Wren  51

Wren, Christopher, Sir  178

Wright  117, 171

Wright, Dudley  177

Wrightsboro  171-72

Wurteh  138

Wurzburg  166

Wyatt  52

Xavier  171

Yacam  116

Yale  69, 103

Yarach  112, 187

Yates  37, 43, 51, 100, 163

Yeamans  145

Yehudit  177

Yemen  145

Yiddish names  121, 126, 155

Yingling  121

Yoachim  116

Yoder  119

Yoel  57

Yomtov  124, 133

York County, Pa.  114-15, 120

Yorke, Sir John  18

Yorkshire  18, 62

Young  43, 137

Yulee  41

Zacharias  116

Zaltman  112

Zanes  117

Zapati  118

Zappali  118

Zarban  117

Zeh  113

Zenger  94

Zepp  119

Zeruiah  79

Zevi  119

Ziegler  146

Zimmerman  114

Zimri  171

Zinn  117

Zipporah  85, 132, 137

Zook  see  Zug

Zorn  166

Zorobabel  128

Zouche   11

Zuckermann, Adolph  140

Zug  116, 119

Zumbrum  119

Zypergus  89

Comments

Craig Martense commented on 01-Mar-2015 04:44 PM

I bought this book after my DNA test showed Ashkenazi and Iberian ancestry I was formerly unaware of. I've found it invaluable in discovering which families would have been of Jewish descent and now have a better understanding of these ancestor's and their origins.


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Bering Land Bridge Research from the Kankakee Swamp in Indiana and Illinois

Monday, March 10, 2014

Research by a Valparaiso University geography professor and his students on the creation of Kankakee Sand Islands of Northwest Indiana is lending support to evidence that the first humans to settle the Americas came from Europe, a discovery that overturns decades of classroom lessons that nomadic tribes from Asia crossed a Bering Strait land-ice bridge. Valparaiso is a member of the Council on Undergraduate Research.

 Dr. Ron Janke began studying the origins of the Kankakee Sand Islands – a series of hundreds of small, moon-shaped dunes that stretch from the southern tips of Lake and Porter counties in Northwest Indiana into northeastern Illinois – about 12 years ago. Over the past few years, approximately a dozen Valparaiso undergraduates have worked with Dr. Janke to create the first detailed maps of the Kankakee Sand Islands, study their composition and survey wildlife and plants inhabiting the islands.

Based upon the long-held belief that most of the upper Midwest was covered by a vast ice sheet up until about 10,000 years ago, Dr. Janke said he and other scientists surmised the Kankakee Sand Islands were created by sand in meltwater from the receding glacier.

 That belief was challenged, however, when he and his students discovered a year and a half ago that the islands were composed of sand that had come from Lake Michigan – something that should have been impossible with the Valparaiso Moraine standing between the lake and the Kankakee Sand Islands.

“That created a lot of problems with what we had previously believed about ice covering this entire area,” Dr. Janke said. “How could it get over the Valparaiso Moraine and be deposited there?”

Figuring out that puzzle required taking core samples from some of the remaining islands and the development of a new test by one of Dr. Janke’s colleagues to determine when sunlight last shone on the sand.

The answer that came back – the Kankakee Sand Islands were born between 14,500 and 15,000 years ago from Lake Michigan sand – was startling.

“We thought the area was completely covered by ice at that time,” Dr. Janke said. “That was a really earth-shattering result for us.”

Yet it also supports research showing that North American Clovis points – a particular type of arrowhead that represents the oldest manmade object on the continent –identically match arrowheads found in Europe and made by humans at approximately the same time.

And just within the last year, new research has provided strong evidence that a large meteorite struck the ice sheet covering North American and melted much of the ice shortly before the formation of the Kankakee Sand Islands.

“Our research at Valparaiso supports this other recent research because it indicates there wasn’t a massive ice sheet covering North America that would have allowed tribes to cross over from Asia via a Bering Strait land-ice bridge,” Dr. Janke said.

Dr. Janke’s research on the formation of the Kankakee Sand Islands is continuing this summer, with a focus on determining whether the islands closest to Lake Michigan are younger than the southernmost islands.

At one time, approximately 1,200 of the islands stretched out in a series of curved bands north and and south of the Kankakee River that are separated by a few miles and mirror the southern tip of Lake Michigan. Though many were destroyed by human settlement, about 700 still exist today.

Dr. Janke and his students also have been active in the Woodland Savanna Land Conservancy, an organization working to protect the Kankakee Sand Islands.

Scott Osthus, a recent graduate who worked with Dr. Janke to map the Kankakee Sand Islands and support their preservation, enjoyed being involved in the research effort.

“During my four years at Valparaiso, I saw how interesting and significant the Kankakee Sand Islands landscape is,” Osthus said. “I want to see this area preserved because it is so historically significant.”

Landowners have donated a handful of islands to the trust for preservation, and Dr. Janke is hopeful that others will follow their lead and perhaps eventually build enough support for some of the islands to be incorporated into Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore or their own state park.

“The Kankakee Sand Islands are archaeologically significant, with numerous Native American artifacts and burial grounds still present in the surviving islands, and they provide crucial habitat for native wildlife and plant species,” Dr. Janke said. “I’m hopefully the sand islands can be protected so we can continue to learn about and appreciate them.”

Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by Valparaiso University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Comments

Jim Coyle commented on 19-Mar-2014 08:33 AM

An idea if not already considered is that the indiana sands were laid down before the Valpo Moraine. I'am of the opinion that there were 3 impact sites down the length of lake Michigan. This will need research to confirm. But check the outline of the lake and you see 3 rounded indents in the shoreline and in checking the depth charts there are 3 "holes" at the same sites.

Johari Sheared commented on 08-Apr-2014 04:26 PM

I have been tested several years ago and I recently looked at my test results again. DNA consultants was able to find that I have Native American ancestry and also Jewish ancestry. I am an african american women and I have been researching my family tree for a number of years and DNA consultants is very detailed. I checked my african american matches listed and it showed Equitorial Guinea. I looked up the information on this and discovered that it was settled by the Spanish and Portugese. I took the 18 marker test as well and discovered that I have 2 markers for Jewish and one for Native American. I thank DNA consultants for these results. This gives me a good idea where my ancestors came from.


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