If you want to discover your genetic history and where you came from... you’ve found the right place!


Review of Science Writing and News Reports on DNA Testing and Popular Genetics

Tucson Artifacts' Story of Pre-Columbian Roman Colony Verified by Archeology

Monday, April 25, 2016

An April 10 article by Tara MacIsaac in the Epoch Times ("Tucson Artifacts Suggest Romans Made It to New World in 8th Century") is the latest in an emerging portfolio of proof that the conventional history of the Americas is fundamentally flawed and, well, just wrong. At the center of the case for Old World contact before Columbus is a treasure trove of lead artifacts excavated under the nose of the University of Arizona in the 1920s but largely dismissed as elaborate hoaxes since that time.

Known as the Tucson Crosses or Silverbell Artifacts (after the site of an ancient lime kiln on Silverbell Road where they were found), these objects have been in the Arizona Historical Society, Southern Division, museum collection since 1994, when they were donated to the Tucson organization by Thomas W. Bent, Jr., the son of the pioneer figure by the same name who homesteaded the site and devoted his life to preserving the strange "relics."

Thomas W. Bent, Sr. died in 1972, without living to see the artifacts vindicated or even housed in a worthy public institution. He refused to give the artifacts to the University of Arizona or Arizona State Museum because experts such as Emil Haury dismissed them as fakes. A thorough scholarly monograph by Cyclone Covey, a Wake Forest University classics professor, appeared in 1975, but an official reopening of the find site by Wake Forest archeologists was called off at the last moment due to back-channel pressure from University of Arizona officials.

Covey was a professor of classics and history at Wake Forest University who authored a number of erudite works on often-obscure subjects over a long life. Born in rural Oklahoma in 1922, he was educated at Stanford University (Ph.D., 1949), University of Chicago (postgraduate work, 1944-1945) and Harvard University (postdoctoral work, 1953-1954). From 1947 to 1968, Covey taught history and the humanities at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, Oklahoma A & M and Oklahoma State University, Stillwater and McKendree College, Lebanon, Illinois. He was a faculty fellow at Harvard, 1953-1954, and visiting assistant professor of American Studies at Amherst College in Massachusetts, 1956-1957. From 1968 until his retirement as professor emeritus, he taught at Wake Forest in Winston-Salem. He received research grants from the Ford Foundation, Carnegie Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Danforth Foundation. He died November 22, 2013, at the age of 91. Photo:  Cyclone Covey, about 2002. 

Thomas W. Bent Jr. died in 2004 at the age of 82.

In 2009, the director emeritus of the Arizona State Museum, Raymond H. Thompson, called the priceless artifacts "invented and manufactured history" in the Journal of the Southwest, vol. 51, no. 1. The entire issue was devoted to a demonstration by non-expert Don Burgess of their being forgeries. And there the matter seemed to rest until medieval scholar Donald N. Yates and photographer Robert C. Hyde published their "study album," titled The Tucson Artifacts: An Album of Photography with Transcriptions and Translations of the Medieval Latin in early April of this year.

Burgess can be forgiven for his mistaken notions, as he was no archeologist, and claimed no scholarly credentials of any sort. He was the retired general manager of Arizona Public Media, the public television station of the University of Arizona. But Stephen Williams at the Peabody Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts, had also been sure the embarrassing artifacts were fraudulent. His sweeping, entertaining rejection, which appeared in 1991 after six years of writing itself in a popular class by the same name at Harvard, came in Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Prehistory (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), where the Tucson Crosses find their place in Chapter 10, “Across the Sea They Came, Each with a Different Cause.” Today, such dismissals are likely to be seen as comical in an unintended way.

Meanwhile, most followers of the topic have chimed in and voted on the issue, including Wikipedia and conspiracy websites. The Tucson Artifacts are hoaxes, not history. They were perhaps the concoction of a deranged cleric, a group of Masonic cowboys, or .... or. Yet a falsifier responsible for them has never been identified. Can there be a forgery without a forger, or hoax without a hoaxer? Can there be a crime without a perpetrator? Can artifacts so long in the public eye be genuine and suspect at the same time? The verdict of Southwest archeology and Arizona history says yes.

One of the frequent objections to the Tucson Artifacts as for other anomalies such as the Bat Creek Stone and Kensington Rune Stone is that they lack an archeological context. However, they did not appear in a void, and they are not bereft of local archeological echoes and confirmation. As shown on the flyleaf of the new study, a letter R in the same Roman capital style appears as a prominent signature on Signal Hill, several miles from the Silverbell lime-kiln. It is reproduced below with two samples from the artifacts for comparison.


Roman letter R on Signal Hill. Its letter-form and ductus (design and direction of letter strokes) are the same as those engraved in lead on the Tucson Artifacts. 

Roman letter R on Tucson Artifact 6B, a double engraved cross. To its left is a Mesoamerican glyph of Quetzalcoatl, the culture bearer and figure head for a foreign religious sect in Mexico, and to the right is a Jewish temple with a cancel line or bar through it representing the suppression of the Jewish religion under Christianity, labeled T.O.B., or "the good Name, i.e. David." In Jewish tradition, and in the chansons de geste of Old French literature such as Aymeri de Narbonne, Beaulande was the home of heroes and foreign brides, i.e. the Holy Land.  

Roman R on Tucson Artifacts 7A, the Josephus and Saul Cross. The text reads, "A Roman, Josephus is praised," and there are trade seals, a ship and a Frankish axe, symbol of nationality, below it. On the other side are an inscription reading "Levites:  Josephus and Saul: In Memoriam," a ritual Jewish spice spoon and other seals and symbols, including the triple tiara of a Levite priest of the Temple in Jerusalem. 

Here are some additional signs of the Roman colony in surviving petroglyphs of nearby sites, including their trademark 9-petaled white rose, the mystic rose of the Cabala.


The same Roman R viewed on high at Signal Hill with other writing.

Josephus and Saul memorial cross takes the form of a Latin cross and shows the symbol of Frankish nationality, the axe, at bottom.

Latin crosses at nearby Cocoraque Bluff. 

Two examples of the distinctive 9-petaled rose at Signal Hill. Compare the emblem on the shield of the soldier shown on the Peabody Mimbres bowl above.

9-petaled Rose beside 5 spoked wheel in the Catalinas on Mt. Lemmon outside Tucson.

Petroglyph on top Signal Hill seems to depict soldier with spear and shield standing guard over town or mine.

With all these compelling parallels to the literary evidence staring out from local and regional archeology, it cannot be said that the strange story of a Roman military colony in medieval Arizona lacks context, coherence and credibility. This presentation of the evidence just scratches the surface. Other examples of Roman capitals and the Mystic Rose will undoubtedly come to the attention of those seeking to verify rather than debunk the Tucson Artifacts. But don't expect the artifacts to be freed from the Book of the Damned too soon. They have languished there for nearly a hundred years.

The Tucson Artifacts
Tucson Artifacts Suggest Romans Made It to New World
What Would It Take?

On the blog theme photo above from a bowl in the Peabody Museum:  The lizard marks it as relating to visitors by sea. We appear to have a depiction of a Toltec warrior of approximately the same period as the Tucson Artifacts. The rose on the shield is similar to the emblem found in petroglyph art near Tucson, apparently standing for Rhoda, the name of the city in the inscriptions. Chansons de geste often describe heroes such as William of Orange bearing a shield with a flower. In later literature it was known as the Mystic Rose. In the tradition of the Cabala the nine petals stand for the nine branches or worlds of the Tree of Life. The white stuff forming the soldier's tunic or body armor seems to be cotton padding, as Aztec warriors wore when they fought the Spanish. The soldier has greaves like the soldiers in the Utrecht Psalter, and his spears seem to be metal-tipped, but his facial paint is the warpaint of a Native American (falcon’s eye). Grants County, where the bowl originated, was an important mining district some fifty miles from Tucson.  


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Cracks in the Cherokee

Monday, January 11, 2016

Did you know the meaning of the term Cherokee is unknown? The received, standard version of Cherokee genetics and history has suffered a number of fundamental assaults recently. See, for instance, Old World Roots of the Cherokee or Cherokee DNA Studies, two publications that have drawn the fire of those with cherished beliefs. 

Why can't Mohawk speakers understand Cherokee speakers (and vice versa)?

Why don't Cherokee descendants have "approved" Cherokee DNA, according to government monitors?

We have no vested interests, and are not out to rob people of their cherished beliefs, but would only like to inject a small voice of protest to the avalanche of conventional opinions, this about the true nature of the Cherokee language, which appears to be about as unexamined and taken-for-granted as Cherokee genetics. Evidently, both genetics and linguistics are highly admixed for Cherokee people. Do not believe your government history books!

From Old World Roots of the Cherokee:

Eshelokee, which specifically refers to the warrior caste and is, after all, the foundation of Vision of the Elohi, appears to be the same word as Greek etheloikeoi, “willing settlers, colonizers.”[i]  The th sound of the Greek is replaced by an sh sound.  Cherokee like many Native American languages has no exact equivalent. This is evidently a proper name for those who joined the travels across the face of the earth or Elohi—the crew members, conscripts and other members of an expedition. Such a derivation may explain why the customary name for the Cherokee—Tsalagi—notoriously resists all efforts to etymologize it. In the form choloki, according to anthropologists, it designates “people of foreign speech.”[ii] This is the most common explanation, resting on a lingua franca of the Southeastern Indians called Choctaw trade jargon. But that interpretation begs a question. There are other etymologies, although none is capable of being analyzed into elements of the Cherokee language. 

According to the author of a recent grammatical study of Oklahoma Cherokee, Brad Montgomery-Anderson, “There are several beliefs about the origin of the name jalagi, but it appears that the word itself is not a native Cherokee word.”[iii] The names used for Cherokee people by their neighbors and surrounding Indian nations vary widely. The Seneca and other northern tribes call them “cave people” (Oyatakea), others, “record keepers,” still others, including themselves, “dog people.”

Cherokee elders say many of these are attempts by unrelated tribes to find a similar sounding word to Tsalagi (pronounced approximately Tchalakee or Cholokee) in their own respective language. The proof of this seems to be that no one can offer a convincing etymology for “Cherokee” in the Tsalagi language itself. Other interpretations include tsad’halagi, “people who took a different path,” and atsilahagi, “fire carriers.” Several Mississippi Valley nations still refer to the Cherokee as the Shanogi, or Shannakiak. Linguistically, each of these is problematic.  In brief, there is no agreement among American Indian scholars or the Cherokee themselves on the true origin of the name Tsalagi. Many of the proffered word-origins appear to be nothing but rationalizations.

The Cherokee language is spoken today as their primary language by fewer than a hundred human beings on the planet, most of these rural Oklahomans well advanced in years. To be sure, it is being preserved in libraries and language programs as a second language, notably by the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University and others. In a few years, though, the last link to fluent native speakers will be broken. Cherokee will join other dead languages like Latin, Aramaic and Ancient Egyptian. That may not matter when it comes to studying the language and reaping its store of knowledge, for from a linguistic point of view, Cherokee is something of a historical riddle as it is. The remaining speakers speak versions and dialects that only complicate the issue. Once it is locked away in books and recordings it may actually stimulate us to study it.

Unfortunately, the first descriptions were made by American traders, agents and missionaries, and none of their reports survives. Lost are a grammar and dictionary by Samuel Worcester, the missionary whose activities in the tribe led to the seminal Supreme Court case Worcester vs. Georgia in 1832 and who first wrote down the syllabary. At a time when the well educated in America still learned Greek and Latin in school, field ethnographer John McIntosh reported that Huron, another Iroquoian language, shared grammatical peculiarities with Greek. “As to the number and tenses, they have the same differences, as the Greek and some languages spoken in the north east of Asia . . . The action is expressed differently in respect to anything that has life, and an inanimate thing; thus, to see a man, and to see a stone, are two different verbs; and to make use of a thing that belongs to him who uses it, or to him to whom we speak, are also two different verbs.”[iv] Cherokee makes many of the same syntactical distinctions.

Most people if asked today would probably take the position, as do most linguists, that Cherokee is “the sole representative of the Southern branch of the Iroquoian family of languages.”[v]

If, however, as the linguists believe, Cherokee split off from a proto-Iroquoian language at a distant remove in time equal about to the divide that separates the descendants of Swiss or Bavarian Low German and standard High German, or Czech and Polish, or French and Provençal, disturbing questions arise about the relationship of Cherokee and other Iroquoian languages. Why are the two languages not mutually intelligible? A Cherokee speaker has the same odds of being understood by a Haudenosaunee or Mohawk speaker as a Russian by a Vietnamese or Anglo-Saxon warlord by a BBC newscaster. Why does Mohawk have two or three times as many words as Cherokee? Why does Cherokee have a radically different syntax and grammar from Mohawk? Compared to Mohawk, Cherokee is so stripped bare and simple it comes across as pidgin English. Could that simplicity be illusory? Are we misled by the fact that it is spoken so poorly now as a second language? Why is two-thirds of its vocabulary non-cognate, not sharing the same roots as Mohawk? The lack of overlap extends to basic words like the names of numbers.[vi] In Mohawk, seven is tsjada. In Cherokee it is gahlgwogi.

Could the original Cherokee, the Eshelokee, have spoken a non-Indian language, and might it have been a form of Greek?

[i] On the suffix εθελο- “willing,” Liddell and Scott, 479. On οικέω in the sense of “settle, colonize,” s.v. A.2.

[ii] Fogelson, “Cherokee in the East,” pp. 349-51, has a long discussion. Cf. personal communication from Brian Wilkes, 14 December 2006. 

[iii] Brad Montgomery-Anderson, A Reference Grammar of Oklahoma Cherokee. Ph.D. Dissertation, U of Kansas, 2008.

[iv] John McIntosh, The Origin of the North American Indians (New York:  Nafis & Cornish, 1843) 93.

[v] Montgomery-Anderson 4.

[vi] As Montgomery-Anderson notes (25), an older scholar who first studied Cherokee in the 1960s, Lounsbury, using a list of 200 common words found only one-third inherited by Cherokee from the common ancestor. Cherokee has different words for the numbers ‘four’, ‘six’ and ‘seven’. Because of linguistic anomalies, Lounsbury thought Cherokee “widely separate” from the others. Its divergence “must be ascribed to a more complete, though not earlier, separation.”

Interested persons can take either the Cherokee DNA Test or Native American Test from DNA Consultants to verify matches to Cherokee Indians. For more information, see our Cherokee DNA Studies page.


Nae Boots commented on 14-Jan-2016 10:26 AM

try these thoughts
Cherkessia , circassia high in haplogroup G a northern adapted brother of E ,

and Chittim- kittim - Kit - Kituwah. = Hittites or pre greeks and were the Sea people when the world was a sea before the bronze age collapse .

so natives are combinations of
+ the ten tribes of sea people ( asiantic like + who ever got in a boat with them )
+ canaanites ( = who ever got into a boat with them )
+ menes . mizraim who was Canaans brother . ( plus who ever pharaohs captured and enslaved in their boats)

which I am pretty sure covers everyone ...
or at least genetics of about 10/12 ( european=asiatic types and 2 parts more black types . and everything in between . and that is why the native americans of the equator are the only white of the equator. and why the lost tribes in amazon even the women do greek wrestling .
because they were pre greeks ( creeks?)

for a look at biblical prophesy and who america is in the bible , for a look at what the rocks are crying out !


Nae Boots commented on 14-Jan-2016 12:05 PM


look at the general word for sea people and some of their tribes .. one is Shekelesh and Eshelokee same singular or plural form the same concept of sounds.. a tribe of sea people scattered at the bronze age collapse aka why we say Turtle Island ... previously or collectively in that part of the world they were known as Hittites. in this half of the world it was Isles of Alashyia / biblical Elishah . it is that greek AE letter that has no much sound . like hebrew it is just stop sound, the Aleph .
see oldest age of mayan calender is Alautun and the two oldest kings in the Sumerian kings list . these are the same kings. the grandsons of Noah

Mathew Acra commented on 13-Jun-2016 08:23 PM

My name is Mat Acra. I was always told that there is Cherokee in my family. like my grandpa, I've taken an interest in ancestry and genealogy. I opened an account on Ancestry.com and have since been building my tree. I took 2 DNA tests, one from Ancestry and one from DNA Consultants. Ancestry.com's test revealed Brittish, Irish, Iberian peninsula and a few trace regions but no Native American. I then decided to take a DNA test from DNA Consultants and it revealed Native American Cherokee, Saskatchewan aboriginal, and of course some ethnicity from around the world. I am thrilled that DNA Consultants has confirmed my Native American roots but why didn't Ancestry.com find anything whatsoever?
As far as my grandfather's surname "Acra", I know of there is an ancient fortess in Israel called the "Acra Fortess" and there is something about "Monks of Acra" in Brittish history. My Grandmother's maiden name was Walker and I know the Walkers can be found in the Dawes Rolls but I can't yet find thd connection. My other Grandparents had the Surnames Carroll and Stewart and I'm working those out to find some sort of connection as to when or if they mixed in with the Natives. I'd love to know the whole story but it is a lot of work. Any ideas or answers are greatly appreciated.
Thank you!
Mat Acra

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



What Would It Take?

Tuesday, October 06, 2015

What would it take to unseat the belief that Columbus discovered America and the New World had no visitors or colonists before 1492? DNA evidence? Archeological evidence? Literary evidence? Historical accounts? All proofs but DNA are present in the so-called Tucson Crosses, and the moment everyone was waiting for occurred on December 13, 1925, when New Yorkers opened their Sunday morning newspaper and read a cover story about the Jewish and Christian settlement in Arizona that began in 775 and lasted until 900. The controversy has raged ever since. Most believe the Tucson Crosses are fakes. But they are kept in a public repository today at the Arizona Historical Society Museum in Tucson and you can go view them and judge for yourself.


Puzzling ‘Relics’ Dug Up in Arizona Stir Scientists


New York Times, December 13, 1925


Purport to Chronicle the Arrival of Roman Jews There in 775 A.D. 

Serious Doubt Expressed.  Dr. Bashford Dean Calls Them Forgeries—N.M. Judd of the Smithsonian Questions Date. 


Finds Bear Many Latin and Hebrew Inscriptions and Masonic Emblems.


            Special to the New York Times.


Tucson, Ariz., Dec. 12.—After investigation by a number of scientists, first announcement was made here today of the excavation near Tucson of cast lead swords, crosses and other objects bearing Latin and Hebrew inscriptions which, taken at their face value, are held to mean that Roman Jews crossed the Atlantic in the Dark Ages, penetrated to Arizona and founded a kingdom which lasted from about 760 A. D. to 900 A. D.

The cast symbols and the engravings on them include crosses, a crescent, a seven-branched candlestick and certain Masonic-like representations. 

Opinions of scientists vary as to the authenticity of the objects.  Neil Merton Judd, curator of American archaeology of the United States National Museum, said he believed that no hoax or fraud was involved, but he thought the date later than that of the Spanish conquest of 1540 A. D.

Dr. Byron Cummings, Professor of Archaeology of the University of Arizona, vouched for the reliability of the discoverers of the objects, which, he said, “show Jewish and Christian influence and bear dates of 760 to 900 A. D.”

On the other hand, Dr. Bashford Dean, curator of arms and armor of the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, when consulted about the excavations, branded the objects as crude and childish forgeries.

The first object to be found was a large metal cross, which was discovered by Charles E. Manier of Tucson, embedded in a limestone formation, five feet five inches below the surface of the land, near an old lime kiln.  Further digging by Mr. Manier and Thomas W. Bent uncovered the other objects.  Analysis showed that they were made with lead mixed with antimony, silver and some tin.  This was described by Professor Cummings as a natural alloy.

Noted Scientists Examine Objects.

The objects and site have been examined by Professor A. E. Douglass, noted astronomer and chronologist of the Lowell Observatory; Professor Frank H. Fowler of the College of Letters, Arts and Sciences of the University of Arizona; Dr. C. J. Sarle, a geologist; Professor Cummings, Neil H. Judd and others.  Descriptions of the objects and the texts of the inscriptions have been sent to scholars in many parts of the country.

The combination of Christian cross, Moslem crescent, Hebraic seven-branched candlestick and Freemasonry emblems has imposed a heavy tax on the credulity of investigators, but their appearance of having been covered and embedded in stone by natural processes has puzzled skilled archaeologists.  Some have arrived at the opinion that, whatever their origin, the objects lay for centuries in the earth where they were found.

The inscriptions have been interpreted as describing the conflicts of the prehistoric Roman-Jewish kingdom in the Southwest with the Toltec Indians, forerunners of the Aztecs.  From the inscriptions it has been deduced that the mysterious invaders called their land “Calalus.”  Using the texts as a basis for the work, Laura Coleman Ostrander, historian of Tucson, has sketched the history of rulers of Calalus, her dynasty consisting of Theodorus, Jacobus, Isreal the First and Isreal the Second.

Some scholars to whom the materials have been submitted have been slow to accept the finds as authentic because of the character of the objects and the frequency of archaeological frauds.  The danger of indorsing another Cardiff Giant or a monument of the “Bill Stumps His Mark” type has generally caused investigators to be cautious, but it is alleged that those who have examined the site have come to the conclusion that the things were not planted as a hoax, but have been there for a considerable period of time.  They were found in September, 1924, fifteen months ago—a longer period than any motion picture press agent, as a rule, would allow for the incubation of a publicity dodge.

Finders’ Story of the Case.

A statement of the case in favor of the relics, as worked out by the finders and their co-workers, follows:

            “A chance discovery by Charles E. Manier and subsequent excavation by him and Thomas W. Bent, near Tucson, Ariz., has brought to light many relics that indicate an expedition of considerable proportion of Roman Jews in America during the period from 775 A. D. to 900 A. D.

“The evidence unearthed appears to be the positive data for which scientists have been searching for many years.  It is thought that these relics definitely establish the fact that European or other outside influence existed in America before the advent of Columbus and the Spanish conquerors.  This influence was found in America among the Indians in their rites and ceremonials by the Spaniards, but until the present find no definite evidence had appeared to prove this theory.

“The first article, a large metal cross, weighing sixty-five pounds, was discovered on Sept. 13, 1924, purely by accident.  Mr. Manier and his family were returning from a trip to the historic Picture Rocks, just north of Tucson, Ariz., and had stopped to examine an old lime kiln along the road.  While doing this, Mr. J. E. Manier noticed a peculiar object protruding from the bank to the north of the lime kiln.  On examining the object he discovered it to be of metal, and firmly embedded in the bank, 5 feet 5 inches from the top.  Mr. Manier excavated the object and discovered that it was a large metal cross, consisting of two parts, that had been placed together and riveted with lead rivets.  Between the two halves had been placed a wax preservative, and on the inner surfaces of both halves there was much Latin inscription.  The cross was taken to the University of Arizona and the Latin translated by Professor Frank H. Fowler of the College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.

Objects Embedded in Strata.

“Since the discovery of the first article to the present time there have been unearthed five complete crosses and one unfinished cross, all of which contain much Latin inscription, many pictures and numerous symbols of both a religious and historic nature.  There has also been unearthed a cross with a crescent cross-arm, entwined with a serpent, upon which there is Hebrew script and many religious symbols.  Another cross has a circle of metal, connecting the cross-arms, with a serpent entwined over all.  This cross also contains the Hebrew script and several religious symbols.

“The remainder of the discovery is made up of swords and spears, many of which are scarred as a result of having been used in battle.  All the articles are of metal, and of a natural alloy of lead, silver, gold and antimony, with a trace of tin, and are all in a perfect state of preservation.  None of the inscriptions have been obliterated and the war implements still retain a sharp straight edge, and are well balanced.

            “The articles have all been found at about the same level, that is, between five and six feet below the surface, and in a well-cemented stratum of caliche, the caliche, or lime formation, being so hard that it has been necessary to chop each piece out with a pick.  There is no evidence of burial, either in recent or in historic times; in fact, the articles have been covered by a natural process of the washing down of the debris from above, until time has resulted in building up of from five to six feet of overhead.

“The many scientists who have assisted in the research are unanimous in the opinion that the covering-over process has taken many hundreds of years; in fact, their conclusions tend to place the age of the relics at about the eighth century.

“The placing of the articles in history is being done by Laura Coleman Ostrander, historian of Tucson, Ariz.  She has, through the Latin and Hebrew inscriptions and the many interesting symbols, woven a complete story covering the entire period of these people in America, or ‘Calalus Land,’ as they called it.  It is a story that covers a period of 125 years, and is replete with hardships, wars and romance.

Fought the Toltec Indians

            “The story commences in A. D. 775 with these people being carried forth over the sea to Roman Calalus, an unknown land.  Here they found a people whom they called the Toltezus, the scientists agreeing that the people they found were the Toltec Indians.  At this period Theodorus was the ruler of these European adventurers and was a brave fighter and a man of courage.  He carried on much warfare with the Toltecs and after ruling for a period of fourteen years he was succeeded by Jacobus.

            “Jacobus ruled the people with a mighty hand and was also a constructive ruler, since he rebuilt the city of these people that had been razed during the latter part of the reign of Theodorus.  Jacobus was not king long and was followed by Israel the First, who reigned for sixty-seven years, who, in turn, was followed by Israel the Second.  He ruled until the year 900 and is chronologically complete through the entire period of their existence in America.

            “The records found by Mr. Manier and Mr. Bent appear to be a last record of the people, written in haste at the time when the end was approaching.  The record does not make clear just what the end was, but it has been concluded that these Europeans were exterminated by the natives, who, it appears, harassed them and made war upon them from the beginning to the end.  This conclusion has been drawn, since what appears to be the last writing of the recorder of these ancient deeds states:

            “’The last days have come and the inevitable doom,’ and his last writing is, ‘I am present.  The Lord be with you.’

“To this chapter of the story is signed ‘O.L,’ as well as to all of the other parts or crosses, the ‘O.L.’ being not his initials, but rather an insignia of rank.

Evidences of Authenticity.

“The investigation and excavating is only in the embryo stage, and is to be carried on to completion in the future; however, much definite information has been brought to light that establishes these relics as being several hundred years pre-Columbian.

“C. J. Sarle, Ph. D., one of the eminent geologists of the Southwest, who has spent much time during the last year in investigating this find, is of the belief that the articles are not only genuine but are as old as the dates would indicate.  He has established this belief through the geological facts and through the location at their respective depths, of the numerous Indian cultures, the oldest being that of the Hohokums, or the great unknown tribe of Indians that inhabited the Southwest in prehistoric times.  The veneer of the Hohokum culture is a considerable distance above the level at which these relics are being excavated.

“Dean Byron Cummings, Curator of the State Museum, archaeologist, and a member of the Faculty of the University of Arizona, who has also investigated this problem, is convinced as to the antiquity of the finds and as to the articles being genuine.  He establishes the age of the relics through the Roman script contained upon them, which he states has not been in common use since the eighth century, and through archaeological and geological evidence.  In this he is supported by Professor Frank H. Fowler who has translated all of the Latin inscriptions on the pieces found to date.

“Professor Charles T. Vorhies, entomologist, who has also interested himself in this investigation and has assisted with the photographic record, is firm in his belief that these relics are not of historic times, are many hundred years old, and there is no evidence of burial, but to a depth of between five and six feet by a natural building-up process, over a long period of time.

“Dean A. E. Douglass of the Steward Observatory and Vice President of the Historical and Archaeological Society of Arizona, is firm in the belief of the antiquity and the genuineness of the finds.  He has spent much time on the investigation, has taken a complete photographic record and has himself excavated part of the relics.

Dr. Judd Aids in Excavation.

            “Dr. Neil Judd of the Smithsonian Institution visited the excavation and completely excavated two of the articles himself.  He stated that the articles were very old and that there was absolutely no evidence of disturbance of the earth surrounding them.  He reached this conclusion after chopping these two pieces loose with a miner’s pick.

            “All of these men have either excavated some of the finds themselves or have been present when relics were excavated.

            “The time at which the story of these crusaders relates their history definitely establishes the period during which they inhabited America, and is supported by the eighth century Latin script that is used in the inscriptions.

            “The place from which they came has been established by Laura Coleman Ostrander as the Roman Empire, since they call the unknown land Roman Calalus.  They were designated by her as Roman Jews because of the appearance of the Hebrew script of the early centuries upon the religious standards, and because of the nature and significance of drawings and symbols appearing upon them; also because of the fact that the traders of the Roman Empire during the first Christian centuries were the Jews.

            “The excavation and investigation has been carried on by Messrs. Charles E. Manier and Thomas W. Bent, with the assistance of John S. Bent and the support of the University of Arizona, the Tucson Chamber of Commerce and the City of Tucson.  All of the photography for publication is being done by the Irwin Studios of Tucson, Ariz.

            “This is an announcement and should not be taken as a conclusion, since future excavation will no doubt bring to light much more evidence of startling and interesting nature, and as the new evidence is brought to light a report of progress will be made.”

Declared Crude Forgeries

Dr. Dean Points Out Inconsistencies Which He Calls Childish.

            Dr. Bashford Dean, Curator of Arms and Armor of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, who has made a lifelong study of forgeries as incidental to his study of armor, said yesterday, after examining photographs of the Tucson objects, that they would rank among the poorest of forgeries.

            Dr. Dean has collected materials for publication on 160 cases of arms and armor forgers, and has now on exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum a series of such impostures, labeled and dated as an object lesson to collectors.

            “The Arizona specimens are modern forgeries, probably local, and certainly without either interest or value,” said Dr. Dean, taking up the photographs in detail.

            “Any student of forgeries should know that the imprints of a sharp instrument, as shown in Figure 14, are absolutely fresh, while there has been given an obvious rounding to unessential parts of the objects.

            “The crowns shown on these figures are not accurate representations of an early period.  The shapes of the swords are childish, crudely designed, evidently after some imperfectly pictured Roman swords.

            “The cutting shown on the back of figure 1A bears the marks of being put here ad hoc.  The form shown in Figure 1 is a crude reminiscence of a Turkish standard head, which the forger has evidently seen in some picture.  The rounding hand of the forger, and not the rounding hand of time.

            “The form of the letters is not accurate archaeologically.  The blurring of the edges of the cross in Figure 1A has no other meaning save the effort of the forger to make the object appear old.  An authentic object has an utterly different ‘feeling.’

            “Examination of the letters shows that they were done always by the same hand.  Notice such slips as ‘Brittania’ on one side of the cross and Gaul, in good English on the other, instead of ,Gallia, an error which a schoolboy should not have made.

            “The cross in 3A, with its ragged angles, is another symptom of a desire of an unskillful forger to make the object appear archaic.  The same is true of all these objects.

            The crudely developed serpent in Figure 18A has again every earmark of the copyist’s work.  He who did this had seen evidently some eighteenth century twisted iron, probably of Spanish workmanship, but had in his copy lost entirely the ‘feeling’ of the authentic object.

            “The curious crowns and Masonic-like emblems are evidence also of the hand of a person who wished something to appear interesting and mystical.  One need hardly point out that the making of objects of this kind is the easiest thing in the world.  One has only to scrape out a form in a slab of clay by means of a flat-edged stick, draw in the letters backward with the point of a wire nail, make the desired sketches, and then pour in the melted lead.  The object is then merely to be taken out, smoothed off and, if need be, the surface hammered—bear witness to the wavy border in 6B showing evidence of hammering.

            “The fact of the matter is that a comparison of the letters of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries with these crude forms is alone sufficient to condemn the objects as false.

            “The fact, moreover, as I understand, that the lead contains antimony is again, if not a sure, a highly probable evidence of relatively new manufacture.”

            Discussing different forgeries and hoaxes which he has investigated, Dr. Dean said:

            “These things are done sometimes commercially, sometimes merely to excite comment and interest.  It is sometimes done with a sense of humor, to prove the ignorance of certain local specialists.  I call to mind the skillful work of a sculptor and painter in Munich, who, many years ago, prepared at great cost of time and effort a beautiful crossbow which was shown to the distinguished expert in Munich—Professor Hefner-Alteneck.  After the object had been properly painted it was placed in the hands of the great museum expert, who pronounced it a magnificent specimen of the art of 1580, whereupon the artist, taking out his pen-knife, removed certain ivory plates in the shaft of the crossbow, demonstrating below clean new wood and the signature and date of the artist himself.

            “The sculptor in question rebuked the expert, who had told him that he couldn’t be deceived in an object of this kind, but the professor failed to see the humor in the situation, so the artist lost a friend.”

Likened to Recent Fakes

F. W. Hodge Tells of Hoaxes in Southwest and Michigan.

            F. W. Hodge, specialist in the archaeology and history of the Southwest of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, said yesterday that fake inscriptions of Coronado and Fray Marcos de Niza had recently been discovered in Arizona.

            “It seems very probable,” he said, “that this archaeological faker, who has been at work in Arizona, has had something to do with the finds near Tucson.

            “The miscellaneous congeries of objects found there strongly suggest fraud.  It would not be surprising to find a set of objects which the Indians had looted from one of the early missions, but when you get Masonic emblems and all sorts of things, you begin to prick up your ears.

            “Some one in Southern Arizona in the last year or so has been faking inscriptions.  I received a short time ago from Colonel James H. McClintock, formerly with Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and until recently State Historian of Arizona, a set of photographs of these inscriptions.  One purported to be an inscription by Coronado and the other by Fray Marcos de Niza, the first white man to set foot in Arizona and New Mexico in 1539.  These were obvious forgeries and did not stir up any excitement.  They had been made to correspond to genuine inscriptions of the early Spaniards on rocks in Western New Mexico.  The letters were about three feet long.

            “One of the most notorious fakers of archaeological objects operated in Michigan.  He kept finding and causing others to find strange inscriptions in clay and copper in mounds in Michigan.  He succeeded, unfortunately, in interesting a Catholic priest and was able to use his name in these discoveries, so that a great many people were deceived.  His objects were very cleverly concealed.

            They were found apparently buried under the roots of trees and deeply embedded in mounds.  He had used years in the preparation of the settings in which he wanted the things to be discovered.

            “The detection of the fraud was not difficult, because of the jumbled manner in which the characters were put together in the inscriptions.  For instance, he put in Coptic letters which he got from some books.  Some of them were upside down.  The whole thing was meaningless.  What the man’s object was is something I cannot say.  His frauds were exhaustively treated in an article by Professor Francis W. Kelsey of the University of Michigan in an article published in The American Anthropologist.

            “What betrayed the recently found Spanish inscription fakes in Arizona were the abbreviations.  Abbreviations were made in a manner that no Spaniard of that time would have used.

            “The man who perpetrates such frauds seldom claims to have discovered them himself.  He usually arranges things so that some other man finds them and believes that he has stumbled upon them accidentally.”

Judd Doubts Dates Given

He Suggests That Objects Are Not Older Than 1540.

            Washington, Dec. 12.  Neil Merton Judd, anthropologist and curator of American Archaeology of the United States National Museum, who investigated the site and alleged early Roman-Jewish objects in Arizona, made this statement regarding them:

            “I have every confidence in the archaeological ability and judgment of Professor Cummings, but I cannot believe from such data as has come to my attention and from my personal observation at the site of these finds in the Fall of 1924 and the Spring of 1925 that these specimens are as old as the dates appearing on them would seem to indicate.

            “I believe that no hoax or fraud is involved.

            “I believe the overlying earth and stone (caliche) has been formed since the specimens were placed there, but I am confident that the various objects mentioned are all post-Spanish—that is they date after the Spanish conquest of 1540 A. D.

            “So much interest is attached to the discovery and there is such a great possibility of making immature judgment that final decision as to the possible age of these specimens should be held in abeyance until the nature of the overlying caliche deposits has been thoroughly examined by competent geologists.”


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Do You Know Your European Origins?

Thursday, July 02, 2015

Do You Know Your European Origins by Country?

Review of European DNA Testing

By Donald N. Yates

Most people who buy a DNA test want to know what countries in Europe their ancestors came from. But the favored approaches of major companies like 23andMe have so far not yielded entirely satisfactory results, at least to judge from consumer feedback. This review article explores the reasons for this failing and proposes that DNA Consultants’ EURO DNA database based on forensic population data may be a more accurate measure of nationalities in our background than complicated and expensive microarray genotyping.

Since the beginnings until 1960, over 50 million immigrants settled in what is now the U.S., most of them from Europe. Before 1881, about 86% of the total arrived from northwest Europe, principally England, Wales, ScotlandIreland, Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia. Under the New Immigration that followed between 1894 and 1914 immigrants from southern, central and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the total. Many of those were Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Romanian and Galician Jews.

Despite their strong European roots, most Americans know little about what nationalities contributed to their family tree. Many families single out one country of origin and ignore others. In the 2013 American Community SurveyGerman Americans (14.6%), Irish Americans (10.5%), English Americans(7.7%) and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States, forming 38.2% of the total population.

And then there are those who report just being “American." Often of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish and/or Welsh ancestry that they cannot trace, given its predominance in the upper South (such as Kentucky and Tennessee), they amounted to nearly 10% in the 2010 Census, with this trend growing rapidly. Also, according to a Wikipedia article, two-thirds of white Americans have two or more different European nationalities, often four or more, and many "American" respondents may be cases where the person does not think any one ancestry is dominant enough to identify with.


Present-day European countries and major cities (Wikivoyage). Russia east to the Urals and five-percent of Turkey’s landmass fall in Europe. The broadly linguistic regions were similar as early as the sixteenth century and have been reaffirmed by DNA studies: British Isles (lilac), Scandinavia (blue-green), Russia (blue), Baltic (light green), Central Europe (green), Balkans (light blue), Greece and Turkey (purple), Caucasus (violet), Italy (orange), Low Countries (yellow), France (brown) and Iberia (rose).

An important article published last year by geneticists at Harvard and 23andMe drew back the veil on Americans’ European ancestry. It was titled “The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States” and appeared in the prestigious American Journal of Human Genetics. The authors found a higher degree of genetic mixing among all groups than previously suspected. “This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry,” according to the authors Katarzyna Bryc et al.

According to the 23andMe study, African Americans had about one-quarter European genes (Y chromosome studies had put the figure as high as 30%), and some had significant amounts of American Indian ancestry (Oklahoma blacks led the country). Latinos carry an average of 18% Native American ancestry, 65% European ancestry (mostly from the Iberian Peninsula) and 6% African ancestry (compared to 3.5% for European Americans).  

Such fine-scale genetic analysis was made possible by affordable microchip technology involving more than 800,000 SNPs tracked longitudinally through cohort groups. But the analysis did not distinguish between different European ancestries, certainly not on a country-specific scale, and 23andMe’s European results—just as much as Ancestry.com’s or those of other companies using the “genetic strand” approach—have not exactly received a conqueror’s welcome in the ancestry market.

Chronology of European DNA Tests
Foundational to emerging European DNA studies was a 2008 article by Oscar Lao of the Department of Forensic Medicine in Rotterdam and co-authors: “Correlation between Genetic and Geographic Structure in Europe.” Current Biology 18/16:  1241-48. This study found that valid and meaningful genetic populations in Europe were defined by linguistic boundaries, which were largely in turn coincidental with modern national borders. This thesis makes sense:  people throughout history have usually married someone nearby who spoke the same language. The work of the late Martin Lucas of DNA Tribes underscored this bedrock population structure, at least on a regional basis, if not a country-specific one.  A burst of studies over the past five years have begun to paint in the genetic histories of various countries, such as England, Ireland and Belgium. Most of these ask for participants with four grandparents of the same local ancestry.

Previous European analyses had been content to match your Y chromosome or mitochondrial type to countries of origin reported by customers. The advantages of autosomal DNA are apparent if one considers that sex-linked tests target only two of your lines (your father’s male line and mother’s female line), whereas if you go back even five generations you have 16 male ancestors and 16 female ancestors (your 3rd great-grandparents). According to uniparental schemes of ancestry I should be 100% English. The diversity and surprising variety come in only if you dig beneath the surface and sift back through the generations.

It is suspected that the results even of “autosomal” (non-sex-linked) testing have not been entirely rid of skewed results and sample biases. The fact that samples often come from medical studies and the purpose of genetic research is largely aimed at medical studies, not ancestry, introduces an unavoidable bias, not to mention the suspicious preponderance of countries like England, German and the U.S. to the detriment of the nations of Eastern and Southern Europe. What about a truly autosomal method that completely ignores the gender of the tested person?  What about a database of European countries that is equal, comprehensive and unequivocal? What about a method that compares you only to Europeans, not European Americans? In short, what about a good European DNA test plain and simple that gives genealogy enthusiasts what they want?

Just such a product is available for under a hundred dollars with the EURO DNA Ancestry Test from DNA Consultants. It forms part of the company’s atDNA autosomal ancestry database, now in version 7.0, released in late June (N = 9,983). Since 2009, we have worked with Professor Wendell Paulson at Arizona State University, Mathematics Department, to develop a 10-loci STR frequency database for European countries/populations, forming part of our DNA Fingerprint Test. The 10-loci are: D81179, D21S11, D3S1358, THO1, D16S539, D21338, D19S433, VWA, D18S51 and FGA. On this basis, we have incorporated data for the following 39 populations from publications or online sources:


Albania/Kosovo (n = 136)

Austria (n = 222)

Belarus (n = 176)

Belgian - Flemish (n = 231)

Belgium  (n = 206)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171)

Croatia (n = 200)

Czech Republic (n = 200)

Denmark (n = 200)

England/Wales (n = 437)

Estonia (n = 150)

Finland (n = 230)

France (n = 208)

France – North (Lille) (n = 200)

France – South (Toulouse) (n = 335)

Germany (n = 662)

Greece (n = 208)

Hungary (n = 224)

Ireland (n = 304)

Italy (n = 209) (Replaced Italy n = 103)

Lithuania (n = 300)

Macedonia (n = 100)

Montenegro (n = 200)

Netherlands (n = 231)

Northern Ireland (n = 207)

Norway (n = 202)

Poland (n = 206)

Portugal (n = 150)

Romania (n = 243)

Russia (n = 184)

Scotland - Highlands (Dundee) (n = 228)

Scotland – Lowlands (Glasgow) (n = 494)

Serbia (n = 100)

Slovakia (n = 247)

Slovenia (n = 207)

Spain (n = 449)

Sweden (n = 424)

Switzerland (n = 402)

Turkey (n = 500)

This covers all European countries of significance in genealogy with the exception of the Ukraine and Latvia. The former appears in the World Matches part of reports, and while we are unaware of strictly Latvian data commensurate with the European standard, the neighboring countries of Estonia and Lithuania are represented in our current list. Minor countries like Iceland and Malta are not included, though data were available for them. The 39-country basis replaces the earlier 22-country basis limited to ENFSI (mostly European Union members) and goes beyond the partially updated Strbase 2.0.

How good is the EURO DNA Test? One customer, Jonah Womack, wrote to us in 2012: 

I just wanted to compliment everyone at DNA consultants. My father had always said our ancestors were from Czechloslovakia, and I was curious enough to put it to the test. Within one week of mailing my sample, I had the answers I was looking for. I was so happy to share the news with my father; the top 3 matches were all from eastern Slovakia. That objective evidence led to him sharing family stories I would have likely never known. All I can say is thank you, and this was money well spent.

With the new version of atDNA 7.0, I naturally raced to input my own DNA profile and check my EURO results. An early analysis with ENFSI (available online since 2004) gave me the following Top Ten results:





















The mystery of Finland and Estonia may be explained by the large Native American admixture in my genes:  recent research has suggested that Finno-Ugric peoples and Native Americans share a wide degree of deep ancestry in the so-called “ghost populations” of Stone Age northeast Europe or Ancient North Eurasians (ANE).[1]

But I was unaware of any Swiss, Swedish or Danish ancestors and felt dissatisfied with the list.

After improvements and additions, my new EURO results look like this:


Scotland - Highlands (n = 228)


England/Wales (n = 437)


Netherlands  (n = 231)


Finland (n = 230)


Estonia (n = 150)


Belgium - Flemish (n = 231)


Scotland - Lowlands (n = 494)


Romania (n=243)


Northern Ireland (n = 207)


Portugal (n = 150)

The listing continues with Italy, Czech Republic and Germany. The median falls between #30 France and # 31 Denmark. This “most on a par with each other with a few extreme outliers” picture seems to suggest that my European origins are a lot more diverse than the Top Ten would indicate. The countries below average frequency were Denmark (n = 200), Croatia (n = 200), Russia (n = 184), Belgium (n = 206), Belarus (n = 176), Austria (n = 222), Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 171), Macedonia (n = 100), Lithuania (n = 300). On the face of it, I was less likely to have ancestry in any of these countries, and sure enough, I was not aware of any from my genealogical research. Statistically, I am ten times more likely to have Scottish, English or Dutch ancestry than Macedonian, Bosnian/Herzegovinian or Lithuanian.

DNA Analysis Checked by Surname
I next wanted to see how the top countries tallied with a surname count. Both parents had English surnames (Cooper and Yates), and this seemed to be reflected in the prominent position of England/Wales, while a Scottish grandmother (McDonald) and Dutch grandmother (Goble) seemed to justify Highlands Scotland and the Netherlands. We have already explained Finland. But what about the other countries?

Looking at the surname origins of my thirty-two 3rd-great-grandparents, I obtained the following statistics:

34% Scottish (Mitchell, McDonald, Johnson, Kitchens, Mason, Forester, Pickard, Proctor, Lackey)

25% English/Welsh (Barnes, Yates, Thomas, Goodson, Kimbrell, Cooper, Blevins, Wooten)

13% Dutch (Hooten, Goble, Shankles)

9% Irish (Ellard, Denney)

6% German (Graben, Redwine)

6% Portuguese/Jewish (Storer, Bondurant)

3% Hungarian (Sizemore)

An effective 3% percent, my 3rd-great grandmother Yates, who was a Creek Indian, had no surname. So that accounts for all strains and fits well with the new EURO results. The top three ancestries both in terms of autosomal DNA frequency and my Ahnentafel were Highlands Scottish, English/Welsh and Dutch. These were the most familiar ethnic origins mentioned in family stories and traditions.

Autosomal Population Analysis versus Genetic Strands
Let us compare these EURO results to 23andMe’s tabulation, expressed as percentages instead of a country breakdown ranked by likelihood. First of all, 23andMe has me as 99.2% European, with only 0.4% East Asian and Native American, in contradiction to the 8-25% Native American found in other tests from companies employing a percentage score. Of the 99.2% European, 46.7% is British and Irish—in agreement with my highest-ranked countries according to atDNA (nos. 1 and 7 Scotland, 2 England/Wales, and 9 and 16 Northern Ireland and Ireland).  40.1% is “broadly Northern European. Minor amounts are “broadly Southern European” (0.3%) and “broadly European” (2.8%), while <0.1% is “unassigned.” Of the Northern European, there is 5.3% French and German and 4.0% Scandinavian.

There is an air of scientific certitude about 23andMe’s EURO analysis. The listing of ancestry composition appears comprehensive and exhaustive. It adds up. But it is important to point out that the categories are regional, not country-specific. The only countries mentioned are France and Germany, which are not distinguished but lumped together—a choice that would create consternation in most Frenchmen and Germans. There are obvious flaws and limitations in their data and its interpretation.

One limitation is the special inclusion of “Ashkenazi” (of which I am said to have 0.0%) without a mention of “Sephardic,” historically the more numerous branch of Judaism. The DNA Fingerprint has discrete data for four Jewish populations in the World Populations (Israeli Sephardim, Hungarian Ashkenazi Jews, Chuetas, Majorca), as well as four ethnic markers, one of which is strong in Ashkenazi Jews and the other in Sephardic Jews.

The 23andMe approach could be called the omnium-and-gatherum method, with numerous blind spots. It is not, strictly speaking, evenly valid or consistent. It leaves a good deal lacking in reliability, too. Throughout history, Jews have converted or hidden their ancestry. We cannot expect them to come pouring out in the 21st century to self-identify for DNA surveys even if they retain knowledge of their Jewish past. Yes, perhaps some Ashkenazi Jews will sign up for the program and so identify, but one wonders about a medical motive and bias.

Unsurprisingly, Ancestry.com produced similar results for me—99% European, 0% Native American, with 61% coming from “Great Britain,” 15% Ireland and 0% “European Jewish” (equivalent to 23andMe’s Ashkenazi apparently). Presumably, Ireland comprehends only the country by that name, Northern Ireland being a part of Great Britain, although I have no knowledge of that much Irish in my family tree and Ireland ranks only 16th in my DNA Consultants results. Both Ancestry and 23andMe use high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) from Illumina, involving as many as 800,000 SNPs.

The Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip platform is also used in Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder autosomal DNA testing service (which I have not taken). A good description of the microarray process for genotyping technology can be found on a page at 23andMe, with a link to further information on the Illumina website.

In sum, next-generation genotyping technology seems to be accurate enough in assessing the broad picture of your European ancestry, but it is incapable of giving you a country breakdown. Only DNA Consultants’ EURO test, part of its DNA Fingerprint Plus ($279) and available separately for as little as $99, can list and rank the countries of Europe where your ancestors likely originated. It does this not on the basis of genome-wide assessment of hundreds of thousands of SNPs but by comparing your DNA profile to the scores of 10,000 Europeans identified according to 37 actual country names, from Albania to Turkey.

My EURO results matched amazingly well with what I knew from extensive genealogy research about my European forebears, beginning with all the English and Scottish lines right down to minor lines from Portugal and Hungary. With its “false Finnish” match it also indirectly confirmed the Native American ancestry that was evident in abundance in my world matches. Now if I could only find the elusive Romanians (no. 8) in my tree . . . .

[1] Lazaridis, I. et al., “Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for the Present-day Europeans." Nature 513/7518{2014):409-13 (known as the Reich article after David Reich of the Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School); A. Seguin-Orlando et al., “Genomic Structure in Europeans Dating Back at Least 36,200 years,” Science 346/6213 (2014):1113-1118 (known as the Willerslev study after Eske Willerslev of Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen).


Curious commented on 25-Jul-2015 09:28 PM

I finally took the yDNA and mtDNA tests and a lot of the questions raised by my autosomal tests were answered. I'm R-M269 and H11a, both common European haplogroups. I'm a little more confident about where my ancestors originated; the autosomal test told me where they wandered around, but the haplogroups narrow down their origins some.

I'd punch my numbers into the ENFSI calculator and get some results that're pretty far removed from European origins. But from surfing around the Web I find that R1b really's spread about the globe. That's interesting in itself. I guess people with the I haplogroup would get closest (or closer) full-European results from that calculator. I've gotten a lot of information from Eupedia's site. I imagine that's fairly reliable.

I've sunk some money into all this now; I even took my Neanderthal Index. I'm not indigenous Native American, which I was beginning to believe from my autosomal test. I'm also not haplogroup I, which is said to be closest to true European (right? Wrong?). So this is fun and I'm happy I've gotten to take both the mt and yDNA tests along with the autosomal. One without the other could cause more confusion than the person started out with.

And can't leave out the Neanderthal Index, can we?

Robert Bury commented on 24-Sep-2015 11:03 PM

In my Family Finder DNA about 10% of my 800 matches are from people who have identified themselves as Jewish, Levite, or have Jewish names. All of theses people have at least 5 cM. segments on the 16th chromosome at the far right side. Is this a common segment for Jewish DNA?

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Jewish Descendants Return to Iberian Roots with DNA

Saturday, March 28, 2015

“The story of the crypto-Jews is still the biggest secret in the Jewish and general community,” said Rabbi Stephen A. Leon of the Conservative congregation B’nai Zion in El Paso, Texas. His remarks about the phenomenon of Sephardic descendants rediscovering and reconnecting with their Jewish ancestry were part of a long article on the b’nei anousim  or children of forced converts in Hadassah Magazine this month.

            Writer Rahel Musleah looked at several case histories from the millions of descendants whose ancestors were lost to Judaism through forced conversion during the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition, and who are returning to their roots in greater and greater numbers, from Costa Rica to Cuba, from El Paso to Santa Fe.

            For those who successfully find their way back, the journey can mean “a lot of drama, a lot of tears, a lot of joy,” observed Alia Garcia-Ureste, a returnee in El Paso. The daughter of a Lebanese Muslim father and Native American mother, she was a practicing Christian until a DNA test showed her father had the Jewish haplotype G. Upon being questioned, her mother confessed a range of crypto-Jewish practices in the family, from lighting candles at Hannukah and planting a tree in spring to covering mirrors when a relative died.

            Another returnee is Genie Milgrom, president of the Society of Crypto-Judaic Studies. She traced one family line in unbroken maternal lineage back to a Jewish family in Fermoselle, Spain that was forced to go underground five hundred years ago. She documented her findings in two books:  My 15 Grandmothers and How I found My 15 Grandmothers:  A Step by Step Guide.

Milgrom converted from Roman Catholicism to Orthodox Judaism when she was 35. She is now 59. “Milgrom is one of the few who has received a certificate of return (granted to born Jews) from the Israeli rabbinate after her research was verified by Inquisition scholars.” 

Despite her fervor and legitimacy, however, Milgrom was not joined on her path by any of her family. Her children from a first marriage did not convert with her, and her mother rationalized her conversion as an individual whim. “The genealogical journey created a conflict because it involved the entire family’s identity.” Says Milgrom:  “You come to this place alone, without your family.”

Gustavo Ramirez Calderon, a Costa Rican, experienced having his neighbors break his windows and paint swastikas on his walls after he adopted a Jewish lifestyle. One of his ancestors founded the town where he lives four hundred years ago and he refuses to flee today. “I want to walk with my head held high as a free Jew,” he says.

To Colombian-born Luis Lozano-Paredes, the return process was all about proving his Jewishness apart from a religious process. “I wanted to be a Jew by blood. Logic didn’t apply here.”

Many returnees believe that the ingathering of crypto-Jews represents a precursor event to messianic times. But there is only a handful of rabbis in the United States or in Israel who are truly welcoming to them, and Judaism has not been a prosetylizing religion since Roman times.  Organizations like Bechol Lashon and Kulanu advocate for Jewish diversity and are powerful forces for setting the historical record right, while two rabbis, one a Conservative and one Reform, have established outreach efforts on the Internet, Juan Mejia and Jacques Cukierkorn.

Read Rahel Musleah, “Retracing Old Footsteps," Hadassah Magazine, Feb./Mar. 2015, pp. 19-24.

Photo:  Genie Milgrom displays her family tree. Hadassah Magazine. 

Jewish Products at DNA Consultants

Jewish DNA Fingerprint Plus $299

Jewish Marker Test $99

Jewish Upgrade $199

Blog Posts of Interest

Validation Notes on Jewish Markers

Daniel Defoe, Jew

Virginia Surnames with Possible Jewish (and Muslim) Roots

When Wales Was Jewish

When Ireland Was Jewish

Signs of Crypto-Jewish Heritage




Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Admixture in Pima Includes Greek and Sardinian: Genetic Signature of the Minoans, Sea Peoples and Other Mediterranean Peoples in the Southwest?

Sunday, March 22, 2015

By Donald N. Yates 

As shown by an explosive article in Science last year, "A Genetic Atlas of Human Admixture History," the genetic signatures of historical admixture events are persistent, even on a fine scale. Among 100 cases of historical admixture involving two distant, separate populations coming together, the authors detected the genetic impacts of the Mongol empire, Arab slave trade, Bantu expansions and European colonialism in the Americas.

But many, if not most of the admixture events occurring since 2000 BCE turn out to be unrecorded and previously unknown. They can be reconstructed and established only by genetics and the tell-tale survival of segments of distinctive DNA in descendants. 

A Major Signal of Mediterranean Ancestry in Pima Indians
Of interest to us is admixture in the Pima Indians of southern Arizona and northern Sonora, long held by anthropologists to be a classic "Amerind" population (see vintage photo of Pima man). 

The Pima case study from the genetic atlas of admixture by Hellenthal et al. is a simple instance of one-time collision between two interbreeding populations. A "Turkish-like" Side 1 is one of the parent populations of the mixture. Its largest distinctive element is Greek and Sardinian. Side 1 joined together with Side 2, a Maya-like population. Their union is estimated to have occurred around 1754.

We suggest this date corresponds to the spread of Spanish Missions in Sonora (to which southern Arizona then belonged), which brought slaves and workers from within Mexico to work in the mines (Side 2). This means the Mediterranean-like Side 1 corresponded to the existing number of about 2,000 Pima and Papago Indians. Their distinctive marks, genetically speaking, were resemblances to Greeks, Sardinians and related Mediterranean populations. 

A Greek Athlete and a Pima Indian
The Pima man shown above has a physiology and facial features unlike many other American Indians; for instance, he has a Roman nose, thin lips, non-Asiatic eyes and a heavy musculature. He evokes the Doryphorus, a canonic statue by Polyclitus, a Greek sculptor who dominated the art of ancient Libya, the eventual home of the Sea Peoples. The features of the Doryphorus were considered the ideal of male beauty.

Barry Fell was perhaps the first to suggest that Minoans, followed by the Sea Peoples, Libyans and Phoenicians, discovered the rich metals of the American Southwest after 2000 BCE and developed its first civilizations, for which the cultural earmarks were pithouses, adobe, trade centers like Snaketown, fortresses and walled cities, painted pottery and irrigation systems. Thus, the Coyote Chant of the Pima Indians, which the Smithsonian interpreted as a crude invocation of a totem spirit, Fell translated as a Libyan version of the Aesop fable about the Fox and the Grapes, one commonly used in ancient schoolrooms. (See especially, Saga America, Epilog:  Sunset at Cyrene, pp. 387ff.)

It would appear that the Pima and Papago Indians, whose ancient name was Hohokam ("Sea Peoples") long stood apart from other Indians and preserved their ancient roots until the mixing and melding of Indian populations that occurred under the Spanish. 

The presence of 7-10% Greek and related DNA in Pima populations today also explains the survival of the labyrinth symbol, diagnostic of Minoan civilization, and early legends about the Earth Doctor, who founded their tribe coming from the other side of the world. Their spiritual leaders are called Siwani, after the Siwa oasis in Libya. Snaketown and Tumamoc Hill overlooking Tucson, two of their principal towns, allude to the Water or Snake Clan or ships of the Sea People and the horny toad or armored figure in their mythology. Tumamoc literally means "Mound of the Magician," as armored, advanced navigators and miners were considered magicians by the primitive "Indians" they encountered. One of the original names of the Hopi was Moki ("magicians, magi"), and the real name of the Zuni is Shiwi, another reference to the sacred site Shiwa and universal principal god Shiva (both of which predate Egyptian, Hebrew and Greek religion).  

Other smaller contributors to Side 1 admixture in the Pima are Tunisian, Mozabite, Druze and Bedouin DNA, reinforcing the North African component of the seaborne civilizers who built the Southwest's first "Indian" towns. The stone structures atop Tumamoc Hill have been securely dated to at least third century BCE. The three story tower that originally stood on the summit is gone now, but there is an inscription near the highest point facing modern-day Tucson in ancient Phoenician letters. It is an offering to Tanit and Baal, the gods of the Sea Peoples. A similar inscription is at the top of A Mountain or Signal Hill just to the east of Tumamoc. 

Pima Indians a Relatively Pure Population
Before modern times, if a Pima woman was impregnated by an Apache, white man or any non-Pima male the child would be killed at birth. Such measures preserved the integrity of the Pima population.

Both Side 1 and Side 2 share South American Indian DNA (Columbian Indian, Karitiana). Side 1 is further marked by a different type of Maya, Daur (a Khitan or Turkic/Mongol type), Xibe (a Mongolian people formerly known as Shiwei--a coincidence?) and the She people, an important coastal Cantonese Chinese ethnic group (were they some of the ship owners?). 

Side 2, the "Amerind" partner in the admixture, in addition to being about two-thirds Central and South American Indian in DNA segments, had significant strips of recombinant genetic material matching Japanese (2.9), Han Chinese (2.3), Oroqen, a Mongol or Turkic people (1.9), Hazra, an important Afghan people (1.6), Chuvash (Turkic, Central Asian, 1.4), Yakut (Turkic from Lake Baikal, 1.0), Burushko (Phyrigian or Macedonian or Anatolian people who migrated to Pakistan with Alexander the Great, 1.0) and Hezhen (a tiny Altaic Turkic minority today in northeast China, 0.8). 

The diverse list of contributions on both sides of the admixture equation shows that the Pima were formed from a complex scenario of three or more admixture events in history, not just a simple case from the mid-eighteenth century. All the constituent populations can still be picked out today with admixture analysis. The Pima Indians' genetic characteristics are compound admixture over time, with key events occurring in the second millennium, about 225 BCE, 600 CE, 900 CE, 1100 CE and 1750 CE. 

The original Greek origin of the settlements in Arizona may have been apparent to other pre-Columbian visitors and settlers, including the Romans, who claim to have created the records known as the Tucson Crosses or Calalus Artifacts. Is it a coincidence that a property marker midway between Tucson and Phoenix in the lower Santa Cruz river valley has a large inscription in ancient Roman capitals that reads, "Greeks" (Attii). 

Petroglyphs with snake imagery, ship and meanders along with Phoenician inscription on Tumamoc Hill.

Santa Cruz Valley Petroglyph Site with AT inscription. 

Hohokam bowl with bird-prow ships (compare to Tumamoc inscription above).

Byzantine-era soldier depicted on Mimbres bowl ca. 1100. He has a helmet, metal-tipped arrows, scale armor, and shield carrying a rose (rhoda). Rhoda was the name of a mining colony founded in Calalus ca. 790. The lizard stands for the Water Clan, or those who originated overseas. The same rose is found as a territorial mark on Sentinel Hill and Cocoraque Bluffs in the Silverbell Mountains north of Tucson.

Related posts
Who Were the Hohokam?
On the Trail of Spider Woman
Haplogroup N in Europe, Asia Minor and the American Southwest

This article is excerpted from a work-in-progress by Donald N. Yates, The Tucson Artifacts:  A Paleographical and Photographic Edition of the Roman Jewish Artifacts in the Arizona Historical Society Collection


Richard Wallace commented on 11-Jan-2016 10:20 AM

Your article is spot on with a segment of my DNA. I was surprised at Turkik and Greek connections.Thank you for your publications.

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Bigger Question Mark Looms Over Origin of American Indians

Saturday, November 29, 2014

In an article in this week's Science magazine (246/6213:1113-18), the origin of American Indians is linked to that of archaic Europeans rather than Asians. The title of the article is "Genomic Structure in Europeans Dating Back at Least 36,200 Years," and the lead author is Andaine Sequin-Orlando, with Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen as the corresponding author. The team sequenced the DNA from one of the oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans from Europe and found "that Kostenki 14 (the name of the fossil) shares a close ancestry with the 24,000-year-old Mal'ta boy from central Siberia, European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, some contemporary western Siberians, and many Europeans, but not eastern Asians."

"Our findings," the authors went on to say, "reveal the timing of divergence of western Eurasians and East Asians to be more than 36,200 years ago and that European genomic structure today dates back to the Upper Paleolithic and derives from a metapopulation that at times stretched from Europe to Central Asia."

The study also showed that the the Kostenki and Mal'ta genomes contained more Neanderthal DNA than modern Europeans and shared roots with the Middle Eastern population that would much later become European Neolithic farmers.

It would seem that the simplistic "Peopling of the Americas" theory taught in American schools has encountered a surprising death blow from Russia.

Native Americans Have Deep Ancestry in Europe: Yes, It's Official (blog post)

Ancient DNA shows earliest European genomes weathered the ice age, and shines new light on Neanderthal interbreeding and a mystery human lineage   (research news from University of Cambridge)


Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Rare Original Portrait of Sequoyah Published in New Cherokee DNA Studies Book

Sunday, November 23, 2014

© Tony Holman. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission. You may look and link, but do not copy or download.

I got a call last year from a relative in north Alabama telling me he had an oil portrait of Sequoyah standing and reading from a book and a white woman kneeling and tracing Cherokee characters in the sand. It turns out to be the only surviving contemporary portrait of Sequoyah.

The owner purchased the painting in an antiques shop in the 1980s and is fully aware of its value, historical and otherwise. He believes it is the work of Henry Inman (1801-1846), who went through the Southeast repainting portraits destroyed when the famous Indian gallery in Washington burned. Among those lost was one of Sequoyah that served as the model for the lithograph in McKenney and Hall, a much reproduced album published 1836-1844. The McKenney and Hall portrait has long been the only known contemporary likeness of Sequoyah (see below).

Charles Bird King’s work makes up the bulk of the Indian portrait collection prepared for the War Department, with more than 143 paintings done from 1822 to 1842. The Inman portrait, curiously, depicts Sequoyah as somewhat younger than the Bird painting. The Indian Cadmos, as he has been called, is shown full figure dressed in buckskin with feathers in his long hair and wearing a bone and claw necklace. 

The detail shown here appears as a vignette on the back cover of Cherokee DNA Studies:  Real People Who Proved the Geneticists Wrong, published this month by Panther's Lodge Publishers ($19.95). Written by Donald N. and Teresa A. Yates of DNA Consultants, the new book focuses on the hundred-plus participants in the company's Cherokee DNA Project. It also has chapters on Cherokee history, genealogy and genetics. A full black-and-white version is found on page 154.

Donald N. Yates
November 23, 2014

Charles Bird King's much reproduced lithograph from McKenney and Hall.




Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Where Do I Come From: Jim Stritzel

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

James Stritzel, participant no. 8 in Phase II of the Cherokee DNA Project, was interviewed by Vice President of Communications Teresa Yates on October 20, 2014. His story appears in Cherokee DNA Studies:  Real People Who Proved the Geneticists Wrong. 

I live in Washington State, and grew up all over the Western United States, including Alaska. My dad, John Rolland Stritzel, was in the Army. His father, Albert Stritzel, was born in Austria, as was his mother, Marie Mauser. My mother and my maternal aunts said our ancestors were fur traders of both French and Native American ancestry (Metis, Mohawk, Cree), but I had no proof of my Native American ancestry until participating in the Cherokee DNA Project.  I am now sixty-six and one of my earliest memories as a very young child is trying to do broom dancing to fiddle music. Recently, I have built on the base of family oral history I heard as a child concerning my American Indian heritage. I have taken DNA ancestry tests and started following a beginning paper trail. I have also begun making pipes with the permission of a sixth-generation Lakota Nation Pipe Maker. At his request, I spent part of the summer with him and learned a lot about carving pipes. In the picture, I am carving a Deer pipe from Minnesota red pipestone. I also carve animals and natural scenes using soapstone, alabaster, sandstone, and limestone. 

My mother was Kathleen Ena Walsh (her birth name). She was born in 1926 in Birmingham, Alabama. Her mother was Eunice Mabel Ahearn (born 1896/97 or 98) per Eunice’s 1917 New York wedding license, and my maternal great grandmother was Anna Elizabeth. My family’s oral history was that Eunice was adopted and either full or at least half Native American, with Metis, Mohawk, Cree/French and Cherokee further back. Until I did DNA testing with the project, this was as far as I could get on the paper trail, as New York is a closed adoption record state. However, I found a proven relation from DNA testing that seems to confirm our oral history of her. Our oral history of this line is Metis in the fur trade, and this relation is not far from where I thought my great-grandmother was from in Montague, Massachusetts, so I now believe I have her name down and have found her line to either Tighe or Terry. Moreover, I am now starting to verify this with a paper trail as well.

In sum, my family’s oral history of the line has been confirmed as Native American through mitochondrial testing and some close matches. My Native American DNA Ancestry Test from DNA Consultants shows that my maternal line is a unique J with no exact matches in Mitosearch though my mutations did closely match someone else in the Cherokee DNA Project.  My mtdna haplotype J is unmatched in the world according to Dr. Yates. Despite it generally being viewed as a type reflecting Jewish lineage, my particular line, according to his company’s analysis, is Native American. The closest match to my mother’s J line was a lady in Australia that I have emailed, but we found no common ancestors. I believe Dr. Yates said the match may be of ancient origin.

The company report says my maternal line is American Indian despite being an unaccepted mitochondrial type:

Although not one of the classic Native American lineages (A, B, C, D, and X), J has been discovered in the Cherokee Indians (Schurr, Bolnick, and Smith). Most investigators attribute this to recent European admixture. But J haplotyes without Old World exact matches and with only New World exact matches or unique occurrences could just as well be considered Native American. Since this does appear to be the case with the subject’s type, it probably is Native American.

I am continuing to learn more about my family history and would be interested in comparing the autosomal results of members of the Cherokee Study to each other on gedmatch.com. If anyone has uploaded their autosomal results there my gedmatch number is F301307.

DNA Consultants was also able to show I had Native American markers (I and II) which led me to further explore DNA testing.  I further corroborated my Native American ancestry after Dr. Yates kindly referred me to the (now retired) Family Tree’s Acadian Amerindian study.  There I matched autosomally with people of Metis, Mohawk, and French ancestry from near the Montreal area and possibly with Cree as well.  This led to a beginning paper trail, and I now have the strength of knowledge of not only my family’s oral history, but DNA and genealogies. I now have some actual names.

Thanks to DNA Consultants I possess a strong base to find more ancestors. I believe there is a lot of resistance to admitting Native American haplotypes can go beyond the standard A, B, C, D and X haplotypes because a lot of professional people have their careers staked on perpetuating this dogma. However, it runs deeper than this. If you want to conquer a people, you’ve got to make them other than you, not as civilized as you; otherwise, you cannot call them savages and yourself superior. What the study has done for me is this: through it, I have found my people on Mother Earth. I am thankful to all concerned for that.


Nancy Lake commented on 06-Feb-2015 11:23 AM

I hope to do DNA research like you. My line is Cherokee, and specifically, the Wild Potato Clan of Alabama. There might be another very ancient unique DNA answer. If Atlantis existed as the Greeks maintain...some boats went toward the Mediterranean and some to the Americas. In other words...the Hebrew people might have traveled a long way to their promised land and we know from Noah flood story they came by boat. The other group went to the Americas and traveled as well. It is a long shot theory. I am itching to get accurate DNA results when I can afford it.

Nancy (Woods) (Bell) Lake

Ramona Brown commented on 08-Jan-2016 08:43 PM

I am Haplogroup J2a1a. My gedmatch is M378571. We don't seem to be a match though.

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Did Chinese Ships Transport the Cherokee to America?

Monday, November 03, 2014

Thruston Tablet Revisited

Our book Old World Roots of the Cherokee (McFarland, 2012) describes an expedition from Ptolemaic Egypt that brought the original nucleus of the Cherokee people across the Pacific to America. One of the key pieces of evidence is the Thruston Tablet, also known as the Rocky Creek Stone.

This engraved limestone tablet was exhumed in a Mississippian Period mound near Castalian Springs in Sumner County, Tennessee by archeologist Gates P. Thruston in 1870. It depicts scenes of warfare, a peace treaty, marriage and trade relations involving a Cherokee chief, dressed in a Greek hoplite's armor, and a local foe with a Mohawk hairdo, feathers and large square shield with "sky-serpent" design.

The obverse side shows how the two tribes sue for peace and smoke the calumet in a longhouse. The Cherokee chief, plainly identified by his topknot, sun-skirt and lunette around his neck, then gives his daughter in marriage to the opposing chief . She carries a wampum belt signifying peace, wears a plaid kilt and has a star of David on her breast (pp. 80-81).

Writing on the Thruston Stone includes ogam (a type of stick alphabet), Tifinagh  (a North African script) and some pictograms that have not been identified . . . until now.

Thruston Tablet (obverse).

We recently sent scans of both the reverse and obverse to John Ruskamp, author of
Asiatic Echoes-The Identification of Ancient Chinese Pictograms in pre-Columbian North American Rock Writing (Kluwer, 2013). The unidentified writing system turns out to be Chinese.

"It appears to me that there could be three Chinese based symbols involved with this item," reports Ruskamp. "First, within the red outline the four horizontal lines may be for the number four 'Si.' If so, this is one of the oldest styles of Chinese script used for writing 4.

"Second, within the green outline the stylized X-shaped stick-man could be a figure of 'Wen,' which in this case looks as if it is holding a fishing pole with a forked end of the line. Or it could just be a drawing of a stick-man, as this is a difficult image to work with because of its artistic nature.

"Finally, within the blue outline there appears to be the Chinese symbol 'Mi' for thread or rope (a couple of twisted fibers). This may be a separate drawing, or it could relate to the larger depictions."

In addition, we note that there are similar pictograms on the front in the upper right, as well as a Chinese seal script mark in the upper left.

Thruston Tablet (reverse, detail)

Putting it all together, although much still remains to be elucidated, the Thruston Stone appears to record contracts between the Cherokee, Shawnee and a third party who used Chinese writing. Since the principal figure is shown wearing ceremonial attire appropriate for the ancient world (500 BCE to 500 CE), and given the use of Chinese seal script and primitive pictograms, not to mention the ogam and Tifinagh, could the Thruston Tablet be a lot older than its archeological context suggests?

Could it in fact commemorate the original expedition of the 3rd cent. BCE in which Chinese ships helped transport the colonists to the New World? Were the Chinese pictograms made by the hand of a Chinese trade partner or simply by someone on these shores familiar with Chinese writing? Did the Algonquian tribes (to which the Shawnee belong) use Chinese writing? Does the pictogram of the rope (Mi) stand for the Twister Clan (Cherokee Haplogroup B), whose name, like that of Hilo, is derived from the twisted navigational ropes emblematic of Hawaiians? And finally, is the central symbol on the obverse really a rooster? If not, what is it?


cristina commented on 09-Nov-2014 02:33 AM

A very interesting (and also open) final question...

Please tell us what you think

Name, website, and email are optional; if we publish your comment, your name will be shown, and may be linked to your website if provided, but the email you enter will not be published.

Captcha Image



Recent Posts


haplogroup N Akhenaten Terry Gross Alabama El Castillo cave paintings Sizemore surname Maronites Majorca cancer ethics Tumamoc Hill statistics Cajuns Rush Limbaugh BBCNews Sir Joshua Reynolds Kate Wong Peter Parham Bulgaria Arizona State University Holocaust Britain pheromones Louis XVI Amy Harmon Barnard College Native American DNA Test BATWING Illumina Kitty Prince of the Bear River Athabaskans andrew solomon Washington D.C. American history Les Miserables Bering Land Bridge Cismaru Anne Marie Fine Patrick Pynes Keros William Byrd Cismar Bryony Jones corn Mary Kugler Nayarit Nikola Tesla NPR New York Academy of Sciences Michael Schwartz Ukraine Cancer Genome Atlas Chauvet cave paintings District of Columbia Smithsonian Institution Scientific American linguistics Tutankamun Ripan Malhi Egyptians Wendy Roth Joseph Jacobs Smithsonian Magazine DNA databases prehistoric art haplogroup U Mother Qualla Jewish genetics Austro-Hungary methylation Slovakia occipital bun Gypsies Rafael Falk anthropology education Mucogee Creeks haplogroup T mutation rate epigenetics Bill Tiffee Tennessee Khoisan Anne C. Stone National Museum of Natural History Theodore Steinberg Chromosomal Labs Bode Technology Genie Milgrom Melungeon Heritage Association Freemont Indians King Arthur, Tintagel, The Earliest Jews and Muslims of England and Wales Basques French DNA Science Daily, Genome Biol. Evol., Eran Elhaik, Khazarian Hypothesis, Rhineland Hypothesis Abenaki Indians Sorbs Stephen Oppenheimer haplogroup E CODIS markers Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies Old World Roots of the Cherokee Silverbell Artifacts Zuni Indians London James Stritzel consanguinity Phillipe Charlier Asiatic Echoes haplogroup Z Discover magazine DNA Diagnostics Center peopling of the Americas Puerto Rico haplogroup R New Mexico Penny Ferguson Choctaw Indians hoaxes genetics Cohen Modal Haplotype palatal tori Patrick Henry Mary Settegast surnames Patagonia haplogroup L Asian DNA Oxford Nanopore Elvis Presley DNA polydactylism Comanche Indians Clovis Cree Indians Jews hominids Rare Genes Marija Gimbutas Elizabeth DeLand Sea Peoples Melungeon Union North African DNA Douglas Preston Wales haplogroup H Elizabeth C. Hirschman Jalisco Cherokee Freedmen Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma haplogroup J Magdalenian culture Ethel Cox Lab Corp Taino Indians Sizemore Indians familial Mediterranean fever evolution Pima Indians population isolates seafaring Wendell Paulson Middle Eastern DNA Arabia mental foramen Henriette Mertz Columbia University bloviators DNA testing companies Discovery Channel Douglas Owsley Iran Jon Entine North Carolina archeology Bentley surname research Jack Goins breast cancer China rock art Anacostia Indians Oxford Journal of Evolution Thruston Tablet The Nation magazine Caucasian Ancient Giantns Who Ruled America university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill David Reich Native American DNA Plato Etruscans genetic determinism Nature Genetics Henry IV Middle Ages Ziesmer, Zizmor Italy Daniel Defoe Indo-Europeans Erika Chek Hayden Hebrew inscriptions FOX News Carl Zimmer Wikipedia DNA security Arizona Sinaloa Horatio Cushman Havasupai Indians David Cornish Phoenicians N. Brent Kennedy haplogroup C Tucson New York Review of Books Richard Buckley horizontal inheritance FDA powwows Richard III DNA Forums Ancestry.com haplogroup D admixture Turkic DNA Bureau of Indian Affairs Abraham Lincoln mummies origins of art Stony Creek Baptist Church Monya Baker Los Lunas Decalogue Stone AP clinical chemistry INORA Colima Charlotte Harris Reese Michoacan Holy Roman Empire Gregory Mendel Olmec Tucson crosses Odessa Shields Cox Beringia phenotype Michael Grant Cave art Dragging Canoe Cooper surname England Stacy Schiff Roberta Estes Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Eric Wayner Altai Turks Germany Solutreans GlobalFiler genealogy Chris Stringer Juanita Sims Walter Plecker Rutgers University metis Monica Sanowar Black Irish crypto-Jews Teresa Panther-Yates far from the tree Black Dutch European DNA giants Genex Diagnostics Asiatic Fathers of America Barack Obama DNA magazine Richard Dewhurst Phoenix Sasquatch IntegenX medicine Phyllis Starnes Svante Paabo autosomal DNA Satoshi Horai Navajo Indians Douglas C. Wallace health and medicine Lithuania ENFSI Bradshaw Foundation clan symbols King Arthur Nancy Gentry Hertfordshire Chris Tyler-Smith Kurgan Culture Panther's Lodge Publishers Grim Sleeper family history Applied Epistemology Moundbuilders Waynesboro Pennsylvania Europe Finnish people Philippa Langley Life Technologies Central Band of Cherokee Russell Belk Alia Garcia-Ureste Austronesian, Filipinos, Australoid Robinson Crusoe Janet Lewis Crain Denisovans George Starr-Bresette Bryan Sykes Kennewick Man Science magazine Henry VII M. J. Harper The Calalus Texts race Gunnar Thompson Sarmatians African DNA DNA Fingerprint Test India microsatellites Alec Jeffreys Signal Hill Stephen A. Leon private allele Roma People haplogroup G Kari Carpenter Tifaneg rapid DNA testing Neolithic Revolution Melanesians John Butler Leicester Cocoraque Butte Chuetas Irish Central Johnny Depp Gravettian culture Promega research Timothy Bestor University of Leicester Rich Crankshaw Israel Joel E. Harris Jewish novelists Indian Territory George van der Merwede Population genetics X chromosome genomics labs haplogroup B Melungeon Movement Jewish GenWeb Pueblo Indians Shlomo Sand Miguel Gonzalez Nephilim, Fritz Zimmerman Isabel Allende El Paso Epoch Times Anglo-Saxons genetic memory oncology Mark Thomas human leukocyte antigens New York Times Cherokee DNA Project haplogroup X Antonio Torroni myths ancient DNA Arabic Ireland Donald N. Yates Bode Technology Algonquian Indians Charles Perou Hadassah Magazine National Health Laboratories Nadia Abu El-Haj Epigraphic Society Zionism Maui B'nai Abraham Salt River Myra Nichols Elzina Grimwood Jim Bentley Jan Ravenspirit Franz population genetics human migrations Eske Willerslev Victor Hugo Robert C. Hyde Paleolithic Age personal genomics prehistory Sonora MHC cannibalism Charlemagne Pomponia Graecina Micmac Indians Tara MacIsaac Helladic art Sam Kean Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Cornwall Lebanon ISOGG Melungeons gedmatch ged.com Neanderthals mitochondrial DNA Harry Ostrer b'nei anousim PNAS Cleopatra human leukocyte testing Constantine Rafinesque French Canadians Riane Eisler Tintagel Melba Ketchum Mark Stoneking Greeks John Ruskamp Family Tree DNA EURO DNA Fingerprint Test bar mitzvah pipe carving aliyah Harold Sterling Gladwin Hispanic ancestry Ari Plost immunology Joseph Andrew Park Wilson Colin Renfrew Ashkenazi Jews news ethnic markers First Peoples Stone Age Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America Fritz Zimmerman haplogroup W National Geographic Daily News forensics Yates surname Celts Charles Darwin Y chromosomal haplogroups Genome Sciences Building John Wilwol Tom Martin Scroft art history Daily News and Analysis American Journal of Human Genetics Mildred Gentry Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales (book) Normans FBI Colin Pitchfork Telltown Early Jews of England and Wales Thuya ethnicity megapopulations Zizmer Scotland Richard Lewontin Jewish contribution to world literature Current Anthropology single nucleotide polymorphism haplogroup M history of science Khazars Virginia DeMarce Bigfoot Belgium Mexico Ostenaco Great Goddess Mohawk Hopi Indians Russia Navajo Y chromosome DNA Kentucky Gila River Irish history Panther's Lodge Irish DNA Cherokee DNA Hohokam Indians James Shoemaker Gustavo Ramirez Calderon Richmond California DNA Fingerprint Test Brian Wilkes Central Band of Cherokees Jesse Montes Marie Cheng Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama alleles climate change Anasazi Sinti Luca Pagani Hohokam Rebecca L. Cann Acadians religion Israel, Shlomo Sand Texas A&M University Hawaii Albert Einstein College of Medicine Secret History of the Cherokee Indians HapMap Ron Janke Dienekes Anthropology Blog Old Souls in a New World Virginia genealogy Nova Scotia 23andme Holocaust Database Romania Pueblo Grande Museum Stan Steiner Nature Communications Valparaiso University Muslims in American history When Scotland Was Jewish Peter Martyr Maya Ananya Mandal Kari Schroeder